Climate Change

Forest Science Program Climate Change Research
Current Research Focus Areas
Research Highlights
Recent Publications and Posters
Useful Links
Ministry Contact


The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change states that the warming of the climate system is unequivocal. There is a high level of confidence that this warming is a result of human activities releasing greenhouse gases to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and agricultural activities. The Fourth Assessment Report presents a range of future greenhouse gas emission scenarios based on estimates of economic growth, technological development and international cooperation. Temperatures continue to rise for all scenarios with global mean temperatures averaging 2 to 4oC by the end of the century (Figure 1).


  Figure 1. Simulated change in global mean temperature from 1900 to 2100 referenced to the 1980 - 1999 mean value. Solid lines are multi-model global averages of surface warming (relative to 1980-1999) for the scenarios A2, A1B, and B1, shown as continuations of the 20th-century simulations. Shading denotes the 1 standard deviation range of individual model annual averages. The orange line is for the experiment where concentrations were held constant at year 2000 values. The grey bars at right indicate the best estimate (solid line within each bar) and likely range assessed for the six SRES marker scenarios. The assessment of the best estimate and likely ranges in the grey bars includes the Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Models in the left part of the figure, as well as results from a hierarchy of independent models and observational constraints. (Figure SPM.5 in IPCC WG I 2007 [link].) The B1 and A2 carbon dioxide emission scenarios are shown here [link].  

Changes in temperature will be accompanied by changes in precipitation. The rate of warming will be faster than has occurred in the last 2000 years and there will be an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme temperature and precipitation events.Top

BC's Future Climates

BC will have greater warming and changes in its precipitation regime than the global average. All models and emissions scenarios predict an increase in winter and summer temperatures (Figures 2). Warming will be greater in northern British Columbia than in southern British Columbia and greater in the winter than in the summer, particularly the winter minimum temperature [link]. Warming will be least in coastal areas where it is moderated by the oceans

If there is limited success internationally to control future emissions (see the A2 emissions scenario in Figure 1), BC could see a warming of 3 to 5oC by the 2080s. Under the B1 emission scenarios with significant reduction in emissions, the warming is 2 to 3oC by the 2080s. The frost free period, growing degree days and frequency of occurrence of extremely warm days will also increase.


  Figure 2. Mean annual temperature for British Columbia for 1961-1990 and that predicted for British Columbia in 2020s, 2050s, and 2080 for the A2 scenario from CGCM2 (Source ClimateBC v2.2).  



  Figure 3. Mean annual precipitation for British Columbia for 1961-1990 and the percentage change for British Columbia in 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s for the A2 scenario from CGCM2 (Source ClimateBC v2.2).  

Changes in precipitation (Figure 3) will accompany changes in temperature. Southern and central BC are expected to get drier in the summer while northern BC will be wetter [link]. Winters will be wetter across BC, and we can expect an increase in precipitation intensity and reduction in the return period of extreme events. Warming will result in less precipitation falling as snow, reduced snow packs, and earlier spring snow melt with the snow disappearing up to a month earlier under the highest warming scenarios [link]. There will be an increase in the evaporative demand of the atmosphere.

For more climate trend information including historic climate data please go to the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium web site [link].

  Climate in 2020s, 2050s, and 2030s for five locations in British Columbia for the A2 emission scenario.  


  Climate in 2030s for five locations in British Columbia for the B2 emission scenario.  

Possible Impacts of Climate Change on BC's Forest and Range Resources

Although ecosystems and species have responded to climatic changes in the past, future responses may not be compatible with our patterns of use or desires. There could be significant economic, social and biological impacts with major implications for resource management. Many species will be able to survive and grow in their current location under changing climate, however, growth rates will be affected and there will be increased competition from others species or genotypes more suited to the climate.

Other predicted impacts include:

  • Increased forest fire frequency and severity due to warming and drying.
  • Increased disturbances due to insects and disease.
  • Potential ranges of species will move northward and upward in elevation.
  • New assemblages of species will occur in space and time.
  • Species may be unable to move into areas of suitable climate due to barriers to movement, slow migration rates, unsuitable growing substrate or lack of habitat.Top

Managing BC's Ecosystems in an Era of Climate Change

Warming temperatures could generate profound ecosystem shifts across the province. The inherent complexity of forest ecosystems makes it difficult to predict how they will respond to climate change and to the consequences of interactions with past land use practices and exotic species invasions.

Prevailing forest and range management assumes that we have a relatively stable environment, species that are adapted to the environment, stable species interactions, resilient ecosystems, and therefore a reasonable level of predictability about the structure of future forest ecosystems and the services they can provide to society. Rapid climate change requires a substantial shift away from this way of thinking. While some ecosystems will be able to tolerate some change, others may require substantial management intervention to maintain ecosystem resilience to climate change. In some cases, it might be more appropriate to undertake management actions that facilitate ecosystem change to achieve a desired set of future ecological and socioeconomic goals.

Researchers in the Forest Science Program are identifying key ecological principles that should guide forest management in light of climate change. In particular, they are exploring how the concept of ecosystem resilience can help us identify possible ecosystem responses to climate change and make adjustments to management approaches so that our desired set of future ecological and socioeconomic goals are attained. It is certain that new approaches to managing forest ecosystems in British Columbia must assume that future environments will be much different from both the past and the present, and that there is a great deal of uncertainty about the degree or rate of environmental change and how forest ecosystems will respond. Currently, a document is being prepared that will provide the scientific foundation for managing the province's forest and range resources in a changing climate.

Forest Science Program Climate Change Research

The Forest Science Program is providing critical information and analysis to support the Ministry of Forest and Range's response to future climate changes. The Ministry is assessing the vulnerability of BC's forest and range resources, and initiating a process to adapt BC's forest and range management framework to a changing climate through the Chief Forester's Future Forest Ecosystems Initiative (FFEI). Forest Science Program researchers are providing leadership to the FFEI Technical Team. Branch and Regional researchers are ensuring that FFEI strategic goals and objectives reflect current scientific thinking, and have produced two key supporting documents that provide a scientific foundation for the initiative, and summarize possible future climates and impacts [link to papers]. Current research projects support all six objectives outlined in the strategic framework [link].

The Forest Science Program also provides technical information and analysis for climate change mitigation policy and projects within government (Ministry of Forests and Range, Ministry of Environment, and the Climate Action Secretariat) and externally to industry, first nations and other stakeholders.

This webpage summarizes the current focus areas of climate change research being conducted by Branch and Regional researchers within the Forest Science Program. It also provides research and extension highlights from this past year.


Current Research Focus Areas

  • Studying the potential impact of climate change on forests and considering options for adapting forest management practices in the future.
  • Using spatial landscape metrics to determine the relationship between climate and biogeoclimatic ecosystem mapping units. [link]
  • Studying the influence of climate and disturbance on carbon cycling. [link]
  • Studying disturbance ecology and ecosystem resiliency in light of landscape-level changes such as mountain pine beetle and climate change.
  • Evaluating potential indicators of climate change such as plant community restructuring in transitional zones.
  • Expanding our understanding of the impacts of climate change on range ecosystems, including soil carbon sequestration, natural disturbance ecology, and the threat of invasive plants to biodiversity.
  • Analyzing climate variability and trends and relating them to a variety of forest management issues such as landslides, forest pathology, and soil and hydrologic changes related to the mountain pine beetle.
  • Providing expert opinion on the implications of climate change and the forest carbon balance for forest and range management to Ministry executive, academics, industry, and the general public.
  • Developing future scenarios of forest conditions that integrate management activities, natural disturbances, regeneration and growth changes caused by climate change.
  • Providing a strategic analysis of the future risks resulting from climate change for B.C.'s forest and range resources to scientifically support the prioritizing of adaptation and stewardship efforts and the development of integrated government-wide policies to ameliorate the risks.


Research Highlights

Supporting Policy and Strategic Decision-Making

  • Leading the Future Forest Ecosystems Initiative Technical Team that is responsible for implementing the strategic framework.
  • Providing multi-disciplinary technical expertise to the Technical Team and coordinating research knowledge to develop a sound scientific foundation for understanding climate change and ecosystem resilience.
  • Developed the scientific paper, Climate Change, Impacts and Adaptation Scenario, one of two foundation papers supporting the FFEI, (access the report here).
  • Developing general management guidance on how to best apply ecological principles at various scales to forest management in an environment of high uncertainty and rapid change, the second scientific foundation paper to support the Chief Forester's FFEI.
  • Contributed to a synthesis document From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate 2007. This report is scientific assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation and reflects the advances made in understanding Canada's vulnerability to climate change over the past decade. [more]
  • Participating in collaborative research partnerships such as the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium at the University of Victoria. This research consortium that conducts collaborative research and supplies climate information.
  • Participating on the Stocking Standards Technical Advisory Committee, a provincial committee tasked with revising stocking standards for British Columbia considering the implications of climate change.
  • Developing a special topic bibliography on climate change that will be accessible electronically through the library web site.
  • Providing technical expertise on forest carbon accounting to MoFR, Ministry of Environment, the Climate Action Secretariat, industry, first nations and other stakeholders.
  • Providing seminars and online material on forest carbon dynamics and accounting [link].
  • Developing a climatic foundation for B.C. tree seed transfer standards that will double the area that tree seed can be distributed while cutting climate transfer distance by half, and ensure trees are planted where they can maximize growth and resist pests.
  • Incorporating biomass equations into the Tree and Stand Simulator (TASS) to generate biomass and carbon storage information relevant for addressing questions concerning carbon sequestration.
  • Planning an extension for the PrognosisBC growth and yield model that adds snags, decay, and coarse woody debris, to facilitate reporting on carbon accumulation and assessing the influences of various silvicultural practices on forest biomass and carbon storage.

Access to Climate ScenariosTop

  • Improving accessibility and functionality of ClimateBC, including generating gridded data for use in geographic information systems, and incorporating the program's output into the HectaresBC website. ClimateBC applications have included determining the climate of ecological units, predicting shifts in the geographic distribution of vegetation, estimating precipitation regimes in areas currently not monitored, and investigating changes in snow accumulation and snowmelt.
  • Tripling the spatial area covered by ClimateBC by incorporating climate data for the prairie provinces and the western United States to capture the entire ranges of many western North American species.
  • Provided analytical support for modeling provenance trial data and the implications to predicting the growth and yield impacts of future climate change scenarios.
  • Using weather satellite and radar imagery to augment climate station data in order to identify potential landslide triggers caused by weather events. [pdf]
  • Maintaining a database comprising the most comprehensive collection of climate data available for northern B.C. to provide information for baseline and trend analyses applicable for research on forest hydrology, pests, and other topics.

Determining Impacts on Species and EcosystemsTop

  • Review and evaluation of models of ecosystem and species response to climate and the uncertainty of their predictions under a range of climate scenarios.
  • Evaluating the potential for plant community restructuring in transitional zones as indicators of climate change, such as the alpine/parkland or forest/grassland ecotones.
  • Studying ecosystem recovery in second growth stands. Results will contribute to guidelines for site- and landscape-level ecosystem-based management and contribute to our understanding of ecosystem resilience in the face of climate change.
  • Re-measuring an existing long-term monitoring plot in the Carmanah Valley and establishing new Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network plots in representative old growth forest. This is part of an international network to detect long-term ecological changes in response to climate change.
  • Developing a research project to examine the effects of grazing on soil carbon sequestration and storage in rough fescue grasslands. Information derived from this study will be applied to the climate change modelling process.
  • Developing a framework for assessing the risk of climate change on ecosystems threatened by invasive plants. The potential distribution of invasive plants, such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), will be predicted for different climate change scenarios.
  • Examining the role of herbivory, ground disturbance, climate change and overstory trees in affecting conifer establishment in dry forest ecosystems and along the forest - grassland ecotone. This project will have important implications for ecosystem restoration, range and wildlife conflicts and fuel management.
  • Improving our understanding of how soil biotic communities (ectomycorrhiza, macro- and mesofauna, terrestrial mosses, lichens, and liverworts) are driven by edaphic gradients. This research will provide baseline indicators and relationships for assessing the impacts climate change.
  • Studying past and present geomorphic and hydrologic hazard regimes in order to predict the impacts of climate change.
  • Improving our understanding of the relationship between climate change and landslide occurrences by looking at historical climate trends.
  • Participating in projects to measure carbon and evaporation fluxes from forests. The research is assessing how mountain pine beetle disturbance and forest fertilization change forest carbon storage and the site water balance. These projects are part of the Canadian Carbon Program (Fluxnet).
  • Establishing microclimatic monitoring at the Prince George Tree Improvement Station to assist in the interpretation of climate impacts on foliar diseases.
  • Examining long-term wildlife stewardship implications of management strategies for the mountain pine beetle outbreak using simulation modeling. This research focuses on species associated with mid- to late-seral forest that are potentially sensitive to habitat arrangement, such as marten, red squirrels and flying squirrels. The model will be used to simulate fire disturbance and future climate change scenarios.
  • Studying the functional response of forest arthropods to stand structure attributes to monitoring the long-term impact of climate change. This research will contribute to monitoring the adaptation strategies identified by the Future Forest Ecosystem Initiative.
  • Tracking declines in permafrost and linking these with changes in climate to better anticipate slope instabilities and other hazards triggered by deteriorating permafrost.

Determining Forestry ImpactsTop

  • Updating provincial tree species selection guidelines and developing decision-making tools that provide science-based information, analysis, and reporting to assist practitioners in their tree species management decisions, particularly in light of climate and forest health considerations.
  • Review of recent changes in the hydrological regime in BC and the potential hydrologic impacts of climate change [pdf].
  • Initiated a study to assess the impacts of climate change on the carbon balance of British Columbia's forest and range ecosystems, using the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector. [more]
  • Examining the relationships between microclimate and foliar diseases in lodgepole pine to determine whether climate influences the prevalence of pathogens such as needle blights and rusts.

Vulnerability and Adaptation


  • Refining reforestation strategies to ensure our forests are well adapted to future climates, and also to capitalize on potential climate changes. Strategies being explored include: identifying optimum seed migration distances and assessing the potential for multi-seedlot mixes at the cutblock and landscape level to increase the adaptive diversity in plantation forestry.
  • AMAT - Assisted Migration Adaptation Trial - Developing a multi-species adaptation trial to better understand Class A seedlot productivity responses across a wide climatic and latitudinal range (48 climate regions in British Columbia and neighbouring states). Results of these trials will predict which orchard seedlots will be most productive for each site under future climate projections. This research will guide seed transfer and allow a system of facilitated migration when planting seedlots in light of climate change.
  • Developing the first province-wide adaptive map for spruce, using data collected from an interior spruce provenance trial (four sites; 150 populations from western North America). This research will help standardize the system of breeding values for spruce in British Columbia, while providing insight into the distribution of adaptive variation of spruce across the interior.
  • Developed genecological models for describing patterns of genetic variation for interior spruce. These models were used to create both fixed and focal point seed transfer systems, and maps for gene conservation that are based on patterns of genetic variation. The analysis provides new techniques to aid in the re-evaluation of seed transfer guidelines, and to direct gene conservation activities.
  • Re-measured the Illingworth lodgepole pine provenance tests (43 sites; 32 years old) in 2005. These tests provide invaluable long-term information on a range of issues related to lodgepole pine gene management, from seed transfer to seed performance under different climates.
  • Measured late-winter levels of photosynthetic potential in 127 populations of white spruce from across western North America, planted at two field sites in British Columbia to contribute to adaptation to climate change.


Recent Publications and Posters

Johnston, M., S. Webber, G.A. O'Neill, T. Williamson, and K. Hirsch. 2009. Climate change impacts and adaptation strategies for the forest sector in Canada. In 2nd Climate Change Technology Conference, 12-15 May, 2009. Hamilton, ON. Engineering Institute of Canada. [pdf]

McKenney, D.W., J.H. Pedlar, and G.A. O'Neill. 2009. Seed zones. Forestry Chronicle 85: 258-266.

Spittlehouse, D.L. 2009. Adapting to Climate Change in Forest Management – A Management Agency Response. Mountain Views, 3(1):11-13. [pdf]

Ukrainetz, N.K. and G.A. O'Neill. 2009. Adapting to adaptation: assisted migration addresses climate change. BC Forest Professional 16: 16-17. [pdf]

Williamson, T.B., S.J. Colombo, P.N. Duinker, P.A. Gray, R.J. Hennessey, D. Houle, M.H. Johnston, A.E. Ogden, and D.L. Spittlehouse. 2009. Climate change and Canada’s forests: from impacts to adaptation. Sustain. For. Manag. Netw. and Nat. Resour. Can., Can. For. Serv., North. For. Cent., Edmonton, AB.  [PDF 4446KB]

Moore, R.D., D.L. Spittlehouse, P.H. Whitfield, and K. Stahl. 2008. Chapter 3 — Weather and Climate. In Compendium of Forest Hydrology and Geomorphology in British Columbia. B.C. Min. For. Range, Res. Br., Victoria, B.C. and FORREX, Kamloops, B.C.

O'Neill, G.A., A. Hamann, and T. Wang. 2008. Accounting for population variation improves estimates of climate change impacts on species' growth and distribution. J. Appl. Ecol. 45(4): 1040-1049.

O’Neill, G.A., M. Carlson, V. Berger, and N.K. Ukrainetz. 2008. Assisted Migration Adaptation Trial. TICtalk 9:3-4. [pdf]

O'Neill, G.A. and N.K. Ukrainetz. 2008. Climate-based seed transfer. Tree Seed Bulletin 47. Fredericton, NB. Canadian Tree Improvement Association, Tree Seed Working Group. pp. 8-11.

O'Neill G.A., N.K. Ukrainetz, M. Carlson, C.V. Cartwright, B.C. Jaquish, J.N. King, J. Krakowski, J.H. Russell, M.U. Stoehr, C.-Y. Xie, and A.D. Yanchuk. 2008. Assisted migration to address climate change in British Columbia: Recommendations for interim seed transfer standards. B.C. Min. For. Range, Res. Br., Victoria, B.C. Tech. Rep. 048.

Pike, R.G., D.L. Spittlehouse, K.E. Bennett, V.N. Egginton, P.J. Tschaplinski, T.Q. Murdock, and A.T. Werner. 2008a. Climate Change and Watershed Hydrology: Part I – Recent and Projected Changes in British Columbia. Streamline 11(2): 1-8. [Link]

Pike, R.G., D.L. Spittlehouse, K.E. Bennett, V.N. Egginton, P.J. Tschaplinski, T.Q. Murdock, and A.T. Werner. 2008b. Climate Change and Watershed Hydrology: Part II – Hydrologic Implications for British Columbia. Streamline 11(2): 8-13. [Link]

Pike, R.G., D.L. Spittlehouse, K.E. Bennett, V.N. Egginton, P.J. Tschaplinski, T.Q. Murdock, and A.T. Werner. 2008c. A Summary of Climate Change Effects on Watershed Hydrology. BC Min. Forests and Range, Res. Br., Victoria, BC. Exten. Note 87.

Spittlehouse, D.L. 2008. Climate change, impacts, and adaptation scenarios: climate change and forest and range management in British Columbia. BC Min. Forests and Range, Res. Br., Victoria, BC. Tech. Rep. 045.

Spittlehouse, D.L. (contributing author). 2008. Walker, I.J. and Sydneysmith, R. (2008): British Columbia. In: From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate 2007, D.S. Lemmen, F.J.Warren, J. Lacroix and E. Bush (eds.), Government of Canada, Ottawa, ON, pp. 329-386. [Link]

Brown, M., T.A. Black, Z. Nesic, A. Fredeen, P. Jackson, P. Burton, T. Trofymow, D. Spittlehouse, D. Gaumont-Guay, R. Ketler, D. Lessard, N. Grant, A. Sauter, V. Egginton, and A. Hum. 2007. Impact of the mountain pine beetle on the carbon balance of lodgepole pine stands in western Canada. Poster presentation for the Kennedy Siding Mountain Pine Beetle Research Field Trip, October 30, 2007.

Geertsema, M. 21-24 May 2007. Landslides and 20th Century climate variability in northern British Columbia. International Conference on Landslides and Climate Change – Challenges and Solutions – Ventnor, Isle of Wight, UK.

Geertsema, M., V.N. Egginton, J.W. Schwab, and J.J., Clague. 2007.  Landslides and historic climate in northern British Columbia.  Landslides and Climate Change – Challenges and Solutions. In R. McInnes, J. Jakeways, H. Fairbank, E. Mathie (Eds). Taylor and Francis, U.K., pp. 9-16.

Geertsema, M., V.N. Egginton, J.W. Schwab, and J.J., Clague. 2007.  Landslides and historic climate in northern British Columbia.  Landslides and Climate Change' Conference May 2007, Isle of Wight, United Kingdom. 

O'Neill, G.A., G.D. Nigh, T. Wang, and P.K. Ott. [2007]. Growth response functions improved by accounting for nonclimatic site effects. Can. J. For. Res. 37: 2724-2730. 

Johnston, M., T. Williamson, D. Price, D. Spittlehouse, A. Wellstead, P. Gray, D. Scott, S. Askew, and S. Webber. 2006. Adapting forest management to the impacts of climate change in Canada. Final report to BIOCAP Research Integration Program, Queens Univ., Kingston, Ont. [pdf]

Spittlehouse, D.L. 2006. Adaptation to climate change in forestry. BC Forest Professional, Sept.–Oct., pp. 22–23. [pdf]

Spittlehouse, D.L. 2006. ClimateBC offers high spatial resolution climate data for BC. BC Forest Professional, Sept.–Oct., p.15. [pdf]

Spittlehouse, D.L. 2006. ClimateBC: Your access to interpolated climate data for BC. BC Agrologist, Spring issue.

Spittlehouse, D.L. 2006. ClimateBC: Your access to interpolated climate data for BC. BioNews, Spring issue.

Spittlehouse, D.L. 2006. ClimateBC: Your access to interpolated climate data for BC. Streamline Watershed Management Bulletin 99: 16–21. [pdf]

Spittlehouse, D.L. 2006. Overview of climate change in British Columbia. In: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Recovering Mountain Caribou in Mountain Ecosystems, Columbia Mountains Inst. Applied Ecology, Revelstoke, B.C., pp. 44–51. [pdf]

Spittlehouse, D.L. 2006. Tools for scientists: High spatial resolution climate data for B.C. Island Geoscience Newsletter Vol. 3(2), pp. 2–4.

Spittlehouse, D.L., M. Eng, A. Hamann, D. Meidinger, and T.L. Wang. 2006. Spatial climate data and assessment of climate change impacts on forest ecosystems. Final Report for Forest Science Program Project Y062149, B.C Min. For. Range, Res. Br., Victoria, B.C. [pdf]

Wang, T., A. Hamann, D.L. Spittlehouse, and S.N. Aitken. 2006. Development of scale-free climate data for western Canada for use in resource management. International Journal of Climatology 26: 383–397. [pdf]

Wang, T., A. Hamann, A. Yanchuk, G.A. O’Neill, and S.N. Aitken. 2006. Use of response functions in selecting lodgepole pine populations for future climates. Global Change Biology 12(12): 2404-2416. [abstract]

Woods, A. and G.A. O'Neill. 2006. What effects will a changing climate have on lodgepole pine in British Columbia? In Proceedings of the 54th Annual Western International Forest Disease Work Conference, 2006, Smithers, BC, Canada. Edited by M.B. Jackson. Missoula, MT: US Dept of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health Protection. pp. 67-76.

Yanchuk, A.D. and G.A. O’Neill. 2006. Seed source selection and deployment to address adaptation to future climates for interior spruce in western Canada. Final report to the Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Directorate Project A644. B.C Min. For. Range, Res. Br., Victoria, B.C. pp. 1–8. [pdf]

Useful LinksTop

Climate Action Secretariat - The BC Climate Action Secretariat leads and drives change to achieve the Province’s greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. [Link

Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations Research Network - the mandate of promoting and encouraging research on climate change impacts and adaptation, as well as promoting interaction between researchers and stakeholders. Although the network no longer exists, many products produced through the network are accessible to the public through their website. [Link] [Link to BC Network] 

Environment Canada – Climate Change Program – This website contains information on present and future projections of climate change in Canada, as well as the causes and impacts of this change and the measures being taken to reduce them. [Link

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - has been established by WMO and UNEP to assess scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation. [Link

Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium - is dedicated to stimulating collaboration to produce practical climate information for education, policy, and decision-making in the Pacific Northwest. The Consortium informs adaptation in both operational activities and long term planning in order to reduce vulnerability to climate variability, climate change, and extreme weather events.  [link

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. [Link]

Climatology Research

Ministry Contact

Dave Spittlehouse, Research Branch Climatologist

Ministry contact: Evelyn Hamilton.
Please direct questions regarding webpage to
Updated July 2009