The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defines non-timber forest products as: “products of biological origin other than wood derived from forests, other wooded land and trees outside forests. They may be gathered from the wild, or produced in forest plantations, agroforestry schemes and from trees outside forests.” Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) include forest plant and mushroom products and services.
This rapidly growing sector contributes to the economic diversification of the province. In 1997 the sector was valued at $600M per year, with over 30 000 British Columbians earning all or part of their living from the sector. Over 200 species are harvested for sale, with mushrooms and floral greenery the largest “crops.” There is increasing interest in the potential of the wild-harvested nutraceutical and bio-products sub-sectors.
There are many NTFP-related initiatives currently under way by the Ministry of Forests and Range, other provincial Ministries, First Nations, Royal Roads University, and others. The Research Branch supports a variety of research and extension activities for the management of NTFPs, and has taken the lead to establish partnerships with a cross-section of agencies provincially, nationally, and internationally.
The Research Branch Ecology and Earth Sciences Section has undertaken several interdisciplinary research and extension initiatives, and provided support to many initiatives conducted by the Centre for Non Timber Resources at Royal Roads University. Research Branch staff have provided leadership and support to several strategic Ministry programs and initiatives, including Mountain Pine Beetle mitigation strategies, the Forest and Range Practices Act Forest Resource Evaluation Program (FRPA/FREP) and Forest Stewardship planning.The purpose of this web page is to provide information on NTFP initiatives associated with the Research Branch, both past and present. It will also provide links to current NTFP information for British Columbia, with the intention of supporting NTFP activities for District staff, researchers, the NTFP industry, harvesters, and communities.
Buy BCwild Directory - The Centre for
Non Timber Resources' 2007/08
Buy BCwild Directory is available for
download. The directory is a free resource listing hundreds of businesses
and wild products from British Columbia. From wild foods, native plants, and
natural health care products, to First Nations art, to cultural and recreational
opportunities, this Directory is full of wild and wonderful things to discover.
Given the interdisciplinary nature of NTFP research and extension, Forest Science Program scientists and managers actively work in partnership and consultation with other Ministry of Forests and Range branch staff, such as Range, Aboriginal Affairs, Forest Practices, and Resource Tenures branches, as well the Mountain Pine Beetle Response Team, and the FRPA/FREP Cultural Heritage Resource Values Team. Consultations occur with external agencies, including the Centre for Non Timber Resources at Royal Roads University, First Nations resource managers, federal agencies such as Statistics Canada, small business operators, and industry forestry managers.
Bravi, B. and B.K. Chapman. 2009. Managing for Pine Mushrooms through the Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in the West Chilcotin: Second Edition. B.C. Min. For. Range, S. Int. For. Reg., Kamloops, B.C. Exten. Note 09.
Ehlers, T., S. Fredrickson, and S.M. Berch. 2008. Pine mushroom habitat characteristics and management strategies in the West Kootenay Region of British Columbia. B. C. J. Ecosystems and Manage. 8(3):76-83. [pdf]
Berch, S.M., T. Ehlers, and R. Winder. 2007. Compatible management of timber and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, especially pine mushroom and chanterelle. Presentation at 6th Annual North American Forest Ecology Workshop, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Jun. 18-22, 2007. [abstract]
Berch, S.M., K.-H. Ka, H. Park, and R. Winder. 2007. Development and potential of the cultivated and wild-harvested mushroom industries in the Republic of Korea and British Columbia. B.C. J. Ecosystems and Manage. 8(3):53-75. [pdf]
Berch, S.M. and R., Winder. 2007. From tinder to truffles - fungi in the NTFP – agroforestry continuum. Presentation at Agroforestry Conference, Jun. 12 – 13, Université Laval, Québec City, Que. [link]
Hamilton, E.H. 2007. Session: Non timber forest resources: compatible management and sustainability. 6th Annual North America Forest Ecology Workshop. June 18 – 22, 2007. University of British Columbia. Vancouver, B.C. [pdf]
Keefer, M., E. Hamilton, F. Sampson, and P. Burton. 2007. The development of guidelines for the management of BC's wild berries. Presentation at the 6th Annual North America Forest Ecology Workshop. June 18 – 22, 2007. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. [pdf]
Berch, S.M. 2006. Commercially harvested forest mushrooms of BC: challenges and advances. Presentation at the Canadian Botanical Association Meeting, Jun. 26-28, Concordia Univ. Montreal, Que.
Cocksedge, W. and B. Titus. 2006. "Estimation of biomass of salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh) removed through commercial harvesting and its effect on subsequent year’s above-ground growth." Agroforestry Systems. Jan 2006, Pages 1 - 9, DOI 10.1007/s10457-006-9001-1, URL [link]
Meidinger, D. and A. MacKinnon. 2006. Using the tools: biogeoclimatic ecosystem classification, terrestrial ecosystem mapping and predictive ecosystem mapping. In: Incorporating non-timber forest products into sustainable forest management. An overview for forest managers. W. Cocksedge (compiler) Royal Roads Univ. Victoria, B.C., pp. 26–38.
Mitchell, D., W. Cocksedge, E. Hamilton, and S. Tedder. 2006. "Non-timber forest products in Canada: Emerging sector, emerging issues." International Symposium on Society and Resource Management. Vancouver. June 2006.
Mitchell, D., T. Hobby, T. Brigham, E. Hamilton, and S. Robertson. 2006. Canadian non-timber forest products: Strategies for sustainable management, community development and policy implementation. Discussion Forum 7. Sustainable Forest Management Network 2006 Conference, Sustaining Canada’s Forests: Building Momentum. Jun. 20 – 22, 2006, Edmonton, Alta. [pdf]
Berch, S.M. and W. Cocksedge. 2003. Commercially important wild mushrooms and fungi of British Columbia: What the buyers are buying. B.C. Min. For. Forest For. Sci. Prog., Tech. Rep. 006. [pdf]
Berch, S.M. and A.M. Wiensczyk. 2001. Ecological description and classification of some pine mushroom (Tricholoma magnivelare) habitat in British Columbia. [pdf]
de Geus, N. and S.M. Berch. 1996. Pine mushroom management: A British Columbia perspective. In Mycology in sustainable development: expanding concepts, vanishing borders. I.H. Chapela and M.E. Palm (editors) Parkaway Publishers Inc., Boone, N.C.
de Geus, N. 1995. Botanical forest products in British Columbia: an overview. B.C. Min. For,, Integrated Resources Branch, Victoria, B.C.
Ehlers, T., S.M. Berch, and A. MacKinnon. 2004. Inventory of non-timber forest product plant and fungal species in the Robson Valley. B.C. J. Ecosystems and Manage. 4:1. [pdf]
Forest Practices Board Special Report. Integrating Non-Timber Forest Products into Forest Planning and Practices in British Columbia NTFPs. FPB/SR/19. [pdf]
Hamilton, E. 1998. An overview of the current situation of non-timber forest products in British Columbia. In Non-Timber Forest Products Workshop Proceedings. April 3-5, 1998. Alert Bay, B.C. Inner Coast Natural Resources Centre, pp.10-14.
Hamilton, E. and D. Meidinger. 2005. Ecosystem classification and mapping and species distribution information: Use in non-timber forest resource management in British Columbia. Presentation at A Future Beneath the Trees - Academic symposium. Aug. 25-27, 2005, Royal Roads University, Victoria, B.C. Abstract [link]
Kranabetter, J.M., R. Trowbridge, A. Macadam, D. McLennan, and J. Friesen. 2002. Ecological descriptions of pine mushroom (Tricholoma magnivelare) habitat and estimates of its extent in northwestern British Columbia. For. Ecol. and Manage. 158: 249-261.
Lim, S.R., A. Fischer, M. Berbeee, and S.M. Berch. 2003. Is the booted tricholoma in British Columbia really Japanese matsutake? B.C. J. Ecosystems and Manage. 3:1. [pdf]
Mah, S. 1997. Ktunaxa ethnobotany and fire ecology. FRBC Project KB96095-RE B.C. Min. For., Res. Br., Victoria, B.C. Final Report and Literature Review.
Non-timber Forest Products Publication Sampler. B.C. Ministry of Forests and Range. [pdf]
Presentation Abstracts from A Future Beneath the Trees Academic Symposium. Aug. 25-27, 2005. Royal Roads Univ., Victoria, B.C. [link]
Tedder, S. 2005. Managing non-timber forest products: Contrasting approaches between the U.S. Pacific Northwest and British Columbia, Canada. Presentation at A Future Beneath the Trees - Academic symposium Aug. 25-27, 2005, Royal Roads University, Victoria, B.C. Abstract. [Link]
Tedder, S., A. Hillyer, and D. Mitchell. 2002. Property rights in the sustainable management of non-timber forest products. [pdf]Tedder, S., D. Mitchell, and R. Farran. 2000. Seeing the forest beneath the trees: the social and economic potential of non-timber forest products and services in the Queen Charlotte Islands/Haida Gwaii. [pdf]
Canadian Forest Service – A network whose long-term goal is to create a network of people who have an interest and expertise in various aspects of non-timber forest products. While NTFP businesses may never come close to matching the economic contribution of the timber industry, they may still be important in the rural Maritime economy. [web site]
FAO Non-wood Forest Products, United Nations - Established in 1991 in the Forest Products Division (now the Forest Products and Industries Division), the program Promotion and Development of Non-wood Forest Products (NWFP) is one of the priority areas of FAO's Forestry Department. Their mission is to improve the sustainable utilization of NWFPs in order to contribute to the wise management of the world's forests, to conserve their biodiversity, and to improve income-generation and food security. [web site]
Fire Locations – Fire locations and size used by morel buyers and harvesters to help plan harvesting for following year. [web site]
Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, BC Specialty Crops Industry - A specialty crop in British Columbia is a new commodity, a new use for an established commodity, or an established crop new to another region. They are commodities generally not part of mainstream agriculture. Examples include hemp, ginseng, sea buckthorn, Saint John’s wort, sage, Echinacea, and culinary herbs. Special crops fall into non-traditional use areas such as: aromatherapy, essential oils, herbal medicines, nutraceuticals, functional foods, fibre, floriculture, craft products, and specialty oils, and generally have little or no marketing structures in place. [web site]
Mushroom Picking [web site]
Non-Timber Forest Products of British Columbia [web site]
Non Timber Forest Products, United States – A web site with tools for the conservation and management of non-timber forest products (NTFPs). [web site]
Non-Timber Forest Products, United States - The Virginia Tech Department of Wood Science and Forest Products, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station, and the Top of the Ozarks RC&D in Missouri develop and operate this web site devoted to gathering information on NTF products and markets. They seek to provide information in simple formats and serve as a national clearing house useful to NTFP harvesters and growers, marketers, processors, and end-users. [web site]
Northern Forest Diversification Centre, Manitoba - The mission of the NFDC is to work with marginalized forest communities and individuals to develop economic opportunities that are aligned with local values, based on local resources, and for the benefit of local people. The Centre acts as a research, training, marketing, sales and service centre for the provincial Non-Timber Forest Product industry. [web site]
Royal Roads University - Centre for Non-Timber Resources - The purpose of the Centre is to support and encourage sustainable utilization of non-timber forest resources in the temperate and boreal regions of the world. The activities of the Centre include research, education and capacity-building, policy and stewardship, industry building, developing resources, and publications. [web site]
Evelyn Hamilton, Manager, Ecology and Earth Sciences Section