Biocontrol Agent on Invasive Plant Matrix


St. John's wort flowers Release of biological control agents into British Columbia began in 1951-1952 with the introduction of Chrysolina quadrigemina (Suffrain) and C. hyperici (Forster) to control St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) [1]. BC has records for 83 separate species, or 85 if strains of species are considered as separate biocontrol agents, having either been purposely introduced (68) or having found their way into the province (17 adventive) to target 32 invasive plants. Establishment of the purposely introduced species in B.C. is at 73.5%, which is higher than the average of about 60% reported for classical invasive plant biocontrol agents released elsewhere in the world [2], and even the average of 70% recorded for agents released in western Canada [1].

The table below lists invasive plant species and their biological control agents. Note that this is not a comprehensive list of all the invasive plants known in the province. For more in-depth information on invasive plant species in BC, please visit Weeds BC, E-flora or The BC Species and Ecosystems Explorer.

  • This matrix is indexed on invasive plant common name. To see which biocontrol agents are available for a specific plant species, click the first letter of the plant's common name below to move to that section in the table. Clicking the plant or biocontrol agent name will redirect you to the respective plant or agent page.
  • For explanations on the terminology used in the final four columns, please see the glossary and references section at the bottom of this page.
  • To obtain information on the collection and redistribution of available bioagents, please see: the Biocontrol Agent Lifecycle Schedule to determine when select agents are available; the Biocontrol Agent Handling Techniques for details on how to work with the agents; the Module 1.9 of our Invasive Alien Plant Program Reference Guide,for an overview on how to approach biocontrol in BC; or send an email to: Catherine.MacRae@gov.bc.ca

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Invasive Plant Biocontrol Agent Agent Type First Reported/ Released in BC Released in BEC zone Positive Monitoring/ Dispersal BEC zone Collectability
B
Black knapweed
Centaurea nigra
Larinus obtusus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Imported for other BC Centaurea None CWH, CDF, IDF Passive distribution
Brown knapweed
Centaurea jacea
Urophora jaceana Seed feeding fly 1986 (Shuswap area) None None Not established
Bull thistle
Cirsium vulgare
Larinus planus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Adventive; approved for Canada thistle in 1988 None BG, CDF, CWH, IDF Mass
Bull thistle
Cirsium vulgare
Rhinocyllus conicus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Imported for BC Nodding thistle IDF BG, CDF, CWH, IDF, PP Mass
Bull thistle
Cirsium vulgare
Trichosirocalus
horridus
Rosette/ root crown feeding beetle (weevil) 1991 CWH None Limited
Bull thistle
Cirsium vulgare
Urophora stylata Seedhead gall-producing fly 1973 BG, BWBS, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS Mass
Burdock
Arctium minus
Metzneria lappella Seed feeding moth Adventive None BD, IDF, MS, PP Not permitted
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C
Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense
Altica carduorum Foliar feeding beetle 1964 CDF, CWH, PP None Not established
Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense
Cassida rubignosa Foliar feeding beetle Adventive None BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP Not permitted
Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense
Hadroplontus litura
Previously Ceutorhynchus litura
Stem feeding beetle (weevil) 1975 BG, CDF CDF Not available for general distribution
Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense
Larinus planus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Adventive; approved for release on Canada thistle in 1988 BG, BWBS, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS Mass
Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense
Puccinia punctiformis Leaf & stem rust (fungus) Adventive None BG, CWF, IDF, SBS Passive distribution
Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense
Rhinocyllus conicus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Imported for BC Nodding thistle BG, CWH, IDF, MS, SBS CDF, CWH, IDF, MS Passive distribution
Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense
Terellia ruficauda Seed feeding fly Adventive; first report 1931 None None Passive distribution
Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense
Urophora cardui Stem gall-forming fly 1974 BG, BWBS, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS BG, BWBS, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, PP, SBS Limited
Canada thistle
Cirsium arvense
Urophora stylata Seedhead gall-producing fly Imported for BC Bull thistle None IDF, SBS Passive distribution
Cypress spurge>
Euphorbia cyparissias
Aphthona flava Root feeding beetle (flea beetle) 2011 IDF None Not established
Top
D
Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica
Brachypterolus pulicarius Seed feeding beetle Adventive BWBS, PP BG, IDF, PP Mass
Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica
Calophasia lunula Foliar feeding moth 1963 BG, CWH, ICH, IDF, PP ICH, IDF, MS, PP Limited
Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica
Eteobalea intermediella Root feeding moth 1991 BG None Not established
Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica
Mecinus janthinus Stem mining beetle (weevil) 1991 BG, BWBS, CDF,CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP Mass
Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica
Rhinusa antirrhini (previously Gymnetron antirrhini) Seed feeding beetle (weevil) 1993 BG, IDF, MS, PP, SBS BG, IDF, MS, PP Mass
Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica
Rhinusa linariae (previously Gymnetron linariae) Root feeding beetle (weevil) 1996 BG None Not available for general distribution
Dalmatian toadflax
Linaria dalmatica
Rhinusa neta (previously Gymnetron neta, R. netum) Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Adventive IDF BG, CWH, IDF, MS, PP Passive distribution
Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Agapeta zoegana Root feeding moth 1982 BG, ICH, IDF, PP BG, ICH, IDF, PP Mass
Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Chaetorellia acrolophi Seed feeding fly Imported for Spotted knapweed None BG, PP Not available for general distribution
Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Cyphocleonus achates Root feeding beetle (weevil) 1987 BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP BG, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, PP Limited
Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Larinus minutus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) 1991 BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP BG, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP Mass
Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Larinus obtusus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) 1993 BG, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP CDF, ICH, IDF Mass
Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Metzneria paucipunctella Seed feeding moth 1981 None BG Limited
Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Pelochrista medullana Root feeding moth 1982 BG, IDF, PP None Not established
Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Pterolonche inspersa Root feeding moth 1986 BG, IDF, PP BG, ICH, IDF, PP Passive distribution
Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Puccinia jaceae Leaf & stem rust (fungus) Adventive 1988 None PP Not permitted
Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Sphenoptera jugoslavica Root feeding beetle 1976 BG, CDF, ICH, IDF, PP BG, CDF, ICH, IDF, PP Mass
Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Subanguina picridis Gall forming nematode 1985 IDF IDF Not established
Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Urophora affinis Seed feeding fly 1970 ICH BG, ICH, IDF, PP Mass
Diffuse knapweed
Centaurea diffusa
Urophora quadrifasciata Seed feeding fly 1972 ICH BG, CDF, PP Mass
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F
Field bindweed
Convolvulus arvensis
Aceria malherbae(previously Aceria convolvuli) Leaf & bud galling mite 1992 BG, IDF, PP BG Not established
Field bindweed
Convolvulus arvensis
Charidotella sexpunctata bicolor (previously Metriona bicolor) Foliar feeding beetle 1969 (BC lab study) CWH None Not established
Field bindweed
Convolvulus arvensis
Deloyala guttata (previously Chirida guttata) Foliar feeding beetle 1969 (BC lab study) CWH None Not established
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G
Gorse
Ulex europaeus
Agonopterix nervosa Foliar feeding moth Adventive None CDF Not Permitted
H
Hedge false bindweed
Calystegia sepium
Charidotella sexpunctata bicolor (previously Metriona bicolor) Foliar feeding beetle 1971 CWH CWH Not available for general distribution
Hedge false bindweed
Calystegia sepium
Deloyala guttata (previously Chirida guttata) Foliar feeding beetle 1971 CWH None Not established
Hound's tongue
Cynoglossum officinale
Longitarsus quadriguttatus Root feeding flea beetle 1998 BG, IDF, PP BG, IDF, PP Not available for general distribution
Hound's tongue
Cynoglossum officinale
Mogulones crucifer (previously Mogulones cruciger) Root feeding beetle (weevil) 1997 BG, ICH, IDF, MS, PP BG, ICH, IDF, MS, PP Mass
Top
L
Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula
Aphthona cyparissiae (mix with A. nigriscutis) Root feeding flea beetles 1989 BG, IDF, PP, SBS BG, IDF, PP Mass
Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula
Aphthona czwalinae (mix with A. lacertosa) Root feeding flea beetles 1995 BG, IDF, PP IDF, PP Not available for general distribution
Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula
Aphthona flava Root feeding flea beetle 1990 BG, IDF, MS, PP BG, IDF, PP Not available for general distribution
Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula
Aphthona nigriscutis Root feeding flea beetle 1986 BG, IDF, PP, SBS BG, IDF, PP, SBS Mass
Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula
Hyles euphorbiae Foliar feeding moth 1966 IDF IDF, PP Not available for general distribution
Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula
Lobesia euphorbiana Leaf tying moth 1987 BG, IDF, PP BG, IDF, PP Not available for general distribution
Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula
Minoa murinata Foliar feeding moth 1994 PP None Not established
Leafy spurge
Euphorbia esula
Spurgia esula Bud gall forming midge 1990 BG, IDF None Not established
Top
M
Marsh plume thistle
Cirsium palustre
Rhinocyllus conicus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) 1997 ICH, SBS ICH, SBS Not available for general distribution
Marsh plume thistle
Cirsium palustre
Terelia ruficauda Seed feeding fly Adventive None ICH Passive distribution
Marsh plume thistle
Cirsium palustre
Trichosirocalus horridus Rosette/root crown feeding beetle (weevil) Imported for BC Nodding thistle ICH, SBS None Not established
Meadow knapweed
Centaurea debeuxii
Agapeta zoegana Root feeding moth Imported for other BC Centaurea CDF, CWH IDF Limited
Meadow knapweed
Centaurea debeuxii
Cyphocleonus achates Root feeding beetle (weevil) Imported for other BC Centaurea CDF, CWH None Limited
Meadow knapweed
Centaurea debeuxii
Larinus obtusus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Imported for other BC Centaurea CDF, CWH, ICH CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF Mass
Meadow knapweed
Centaurea debeuxii
Metzneria paucinpunctella Seed feeding moth Imported for other BC Centaurea None ICH, IDF Limited
Meadow knapweed
Centaurea debeuxii
Urophora affinis Seed feeding fly Imported for other B.C. Centaurea None CWH Passive distribution
Meadow knapweed
Centaurea debeuxii
Urophora quadrifasciata Seed feeding fly 1987 None ICH, IDF Passive distribution
Mullein
Verbascum thapsus L.
Rhinusa tetra (previously Gymnaetron tetrum) Seed and foliar feeding weevil Adventive None BD, ICH, IDF, PP Not permitted
Top
N
Nodding thistle
Carduus nutans
Cassida rubiginosa Foliar feeding beetle Adventive none IDF Not permitted
Nodding thistle
Carduus nutans
Larinus planus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Adventive; approved for Canada thistle (1988) none IDF, PP Mass
Nodding thistle
Carduus nutans
Puccinia carduorum Leaf & stem rust (fungus) Adventive None BG, IDF Passive distribution
Nodding thistle
Carduus nutans
Rhinocyllus conicus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) 1979 BG, ESSF, ICH, IDF, PP IDF, PP Mass
Nodding thistle
Carduus nutans
Trichosirocalus horridus Rosette/root crown feeding beetle (weevil) 1979 BG, IDF, PP BG, IDF, PP Not available for general distribution
Nodding thistle
Carduus nutans
Urophora solstitialis Seed feeding fly 1991 None None Not established
Top
O
Orange hawkweed
Hieracium aurantiacum
Aulacidea subterminalis Gall forming wasp 2011 IDF IDF Not available for general distribution
Orange hawkweed
Hieracium aurantiacum
Cheilosia urbana Root feeding hover fly Approved for release in 2016, expected arrival 2017 None None Not available for general distribution
P
Perennial sow thistle
Sonchus arvensis
Cystiphora sonchi Leaf gall forming fly 1984 SBS None Not established
Plumeless thistle
Carduus acanthoides
Cassida rubignosa Foliar feeding beetle Adventive None BG, PP Not permitted
Plumeless thistle
Carduus acanthoides
Larinus planus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Adventive; approved on Canada thistle (1988) None ICH, IDF, PP Mass
Plumeless thistle
Carduus acanthoides
Rhinocyllus conicus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Imported for BC Nodding thistle ICH, IDF BG, ICH, IDF, PP Mass
Plumeless thistle
Carduus acanthoides
Trichosirocalus horridus Rosette/ root crown feeding beetle (weevil) 1975 BG, IDF, PP BG, ICH, IDF, PP Not availabel for general distribution
Plumeless thistle
Carduus acanthoides
Urophora solstitialis Seed feeding fly 1991 ICH None Not established
Puncturevine
Tribulus terrestris
Microlarinus lareynii mix with M. lypriformis Seed feeding beetles (weevils) 1986 BG None Not established
Purple loosestrife
Lythrum salicaria
Galerucella calmariensis Foliar feeding beetle 1993 BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, PP, SBPS, SBS BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, PP, SBS Mass
Purple loosestrife
Lythrum salicaria
Galerucella pusilla Foliar feeding beetles 1994 BG, CWH, PP BG, CWH, PP Mass
Purple loosestrife
Lythrum salicaria
Galerucella calmariensis mix with G. pusilla Foliar feeding beetles 1995 CDF CDF Mass
Purple loosestrife
Lythrum salicaria
Hylobius transversovittatus Root feeding beetle (weevil) 1994 CDF CDF Not available for general distribution
Top
R
Rush skeletonweed
Chondrilla juncea
Bradyrrhoa gilveolella Root feeding moth 2007 IDF None Not available for general distribution
Rush skeletonweed
Chondrilla juncea
Eriophyes chondrillae (previously Aceria chondrillae Gall forming mite 1993 ICH, IDF ICH, IDF Not available for general distribution
Rush skeletonweed
Chondrilla juncea
Puccinia chondrillina Leaf & stem rust (fungus) Adventive None ICH, IDF Passive distribution
Russian knapweed
Acroptilon repens
Aulacidea acroptilonica Stem gall wasp 2015 PP None Not available for general distribution
Russian knapweed
Acroptilon repens
Puccinia acroptili Leaf & stem rust (fungus) Adventive BG, PP BG, PP Passive distribution
Russian knapweed
Acroptilon repens
Subanguina picridis Gall forming nematode 1985 BG, PP None Not established
Top
S
Scentless chamomile
Tripleurospermum perforatum (previously Matricaria perforata)
Microplontus edentulus Stem mining beetle (weevil) 1997 BWBS, IDF BWBS Not available for general distribution
Scentless chamomile
Tripleurospermum perforatum (previously Matricaria perforata)
Omphalapion hookeri (previously Apion hookeri) Seedhead feeding beetle (weevil) 1992 BWBS, ICH, IDF, MS, SBPS, SBS BWBS, ICH, IDF, MS, SBS Limited
Scentless chamomile
Tripleurospermum perforatum (previously Matricaria perforata)
Rhopalomyia tripleurospermi Gall forming midge 1999 BWBS, ICH, IDF, MS, SBS BWBS, ICH, IDF, MS Not available for general distribution
Scotch broom
Cytisus scoparius
Aceria genistae Gall mite Adventive None CDF, CWH Not available for general distribution
Scotch broom
Cytisus scoparius
Agonopterix nervosa Foliar feeding moth Adventive None CDF Not permitted
Scotch broom
Cytisus scoparius
Bruchidius villosus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Adventive ICH CDF, CWH, ICH Not available for general distribution
Scotch broom
Cytisus scoparius
Exapion fuscirostre Seed feeding weevil Adventive ICH CDF, CWH, ICH Not available for general distribution
Short-fringed knapweed
Centaurea nigrescens
Larinus obtusus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Imported for other BC Centaurea None IDF Mass
Short-fringed knapweed
Centaurea nigrescens
Urophora quadrifasciata Seed feeding fly Imported for other BC Centaurea None IDF Mass
Top
Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Agapeta zoegana Root feeding moth 1982 BG, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS BG, CDF, CMA, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS Mass
Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Chaetorellia acrolophi Seed feeding fly 1991 BG, CWH, ICH, IDF BG, ICH, IDF Not available for general distribution
Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Cyphocleonus achates Root feeding beetle (weevil) 1987 BG, BWBS, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS BG, CDF, CMA, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS Limited
Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Larinus minutus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) 1991 BG, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS BG, CDF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS Mass
Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Larinus obtusus Seed feeding beetle (weevil) 1993 BG, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS BG, CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS Mass
Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Metzneria paucipunctella Seed feeding moth 1973 CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, SBS BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, PP Limited
Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Pelochrista medullana Root feeding moth 1982 None None Not established
Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Pterolonche inspersa Root feeding moth 1987 ICH ICH Passive distribution
Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Puccinia jaceae Leaf & stem rust (fungus) Adventive None None Not permitted
Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Sphenoptera jugoslavica Root feeding beetle 1987 CDF, ICH, IDF BG, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, PP Mass
Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Terellia virens Seed feeding fly 1991 BG, ICH, IDF, PP ICH Not available for general distribution
Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Urophora affinis Seed feeding fly 1970 CDF BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, PP Mass
Spotted knapweed
Centaurea biebersteinii
Urophora quadrifasciata Seed feeding fly 1972 BG, CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, PP Mass
Top
St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum
Agrilus hyperici Root feeding beetle 1955 CDF, ESSF, ICH, IDF ESSF, ICH, IDF, PP Not available for general distribution
St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum
Aphis chloris Sap sucking aphid 1979 CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, PP ESSF, ICH, IDF, PP Not available for general distribution
St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum
Aplocera plagiata (previously Anaitis plagiata) Foliar feeding moth 1967 CDF, CWH, ESSF, ICH, IDF, MS, SBS CDF, CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP Limited
St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum
Chrysolina hyperici Foliar feeding beetle 1951 CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP ESSF, IDF, MS Limited
St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum
Chrysolina quadrigemina Foliar feeding beetle 1952 CWH, ICH, IDF, MS CDF, CWH, ESSF, IDF, MS Mass
St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum
Chrysolina varians Foliar feeding beetle 1957 ICH, PP None Not established
St. John's wort
Hypericum perforatum
Zeuxidiplosis giardi Gall forming midge 1955 ICH None Not established
Top
T
Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris
Botanophila seneciella (previously B. jacobaeae, Hylemya seneciella, & Pegohylemyia jacobaeae) Seed feeding fly 1968 CWH CDF, CWH, IDF Passive distribution
Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris
Cochylis atricapitana Root crown feeding moth 1990 CDF, CWH, IDF CDF, CWH Limited
Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris
Longitarsus flavicornis Root feeding flea beetle 1971 None None Not established
Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris
Longitarsus gracilis Root feeding flea beetle 2005 IDF IDF Not permitted
Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris
Longitarsus jacobaeae(Italian strain) Root feeding flea beetle 1971 CDF, CWH, IDF CDF, CWH Mass
Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris
Longitarsus jacobaeae(Swiss strain) Root feeding flea beetle 2011 IDF None Not established
Tansy ragwort
Senecio jacobaeae AKA Jacobaea vulgaris
Tyria jacobaeae Foliar feeding moth 1962 CDF, CWH, IDF CDF, CWH, IDF Mass
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W
Whiplash hawkweed
Hieracium flagellare
Aulacidea subterminalis Gall forming wasp 2011 ICH, IDF, SBS ICH Not available for general distribution
Y
Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris
Brachypterolus pulicarius Seed feeding beetle Adventive None CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS Mass
Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris
Calophasia lunula Foliar feeding moth 1960's (on Dalmatian) BG, ICH, IDF, SBS BG, ICH, IDF, PP Limited
Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris
Eteobalea intermediella Root feeding moth 1992 BG None Not established
Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris
Eteobalea seratella Root feeding moth 1992 BG, IDF None Not available for general distribution
Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris
Mecinus janthinus Stem mining beetle (weevil) Moved from Dalmatian to Yellow CWH, IDF IDF Limited
Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris
Rhinusa antirrhini (previously Gymnetron antirrhini) (Yellow toadflax strain) Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Adventive None CWH, ICH, IDF, MS, PP, SBS Passive distribution
Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris
Rhinusa linariae (previously Gymnetron linariae) Root feeding beetle (weevil) 1997 BG, ICH, IDF, MS IDF Not available for general distribution
Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris
Rhinusa neta (previously Gymnetron neta, R. netum) Seed feeding beetle (weevil) Adventive None IDF, PP Mass
Yellow/ Common toadflax
Linaria vulgaris
Rhinusa pilosa Stem galling weevil 2014 ICH, MS, PP, SBS MS, PP, SBS Not available for general distribution

References

[1] De Clerck-Floate, R. and H. Cárcamo. 2011. Biocontrol Arthropods: New Denizens of Canada's Grassland Agroecosystems. In Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands (Volume 2): Inhabitants of a Changing Landscape. Edited by K. D. Floate. Biological Survey of Canada. pp. 291-321.

[2] McFadyen, R.E.C. 1998. Biological control of weeds. Annual Review of Entomology. 43:369-393.

Biological control agents in British Columbia Matrix - additional information.

  • Of critical importance for this list of biocontrol agents is the understanding that the research performed to request regulatory permission to import an agent will commonly include testing other invasive plants closely related to the main target invasive plant. When it has been demonstrated that an agent may also potentially be effective on a closely related invasive plant, attempts to transfer the approved and permitted agents onto these additional invasive plant species has taken place in BC in an attempt to save the cost of screening subsequent new agents.
  • The monitoring/dispersal Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification (BEC) zones listed as positive for biocontrol agent survival include those where monitoring has been performed and the agent has been found. This information does not necessarily preclude the possibility of the biocontrol agents establishing in additional BEC zones.
  • The table includes the 'collectability' of these biocontrol agents in BC. The categories and their definitions are as follows:
Not permitted: Host-specificity tests were not performed and a federal permit from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) was not obtained to import these agents into Canada. These agents are typically adventive. For more information see the Adventive Biocontrol Agents page and the text included on the bioagent page to determine whether the agent may/should be collected and redistributed
Not established: Repeated monitoring has revealed no sustained population of a released agent
Not available for general distribution: Agents that have been released, but are still under study in development as treatment tools
Limited: Agents that are regularly establishing and exist as treatment tools but for which collection numbers are low, typically in the hundreds for any given site in a season
Mass: Agents that are present and exist as treatment tools and for which collectable numbers are typically plentiful, in the thousands, for any given site in a season
Passive distribution: Agents that are difficult to collect because of their biological traits, or they exist in low densities and therefore are left to self-distribute on their target invasive plant. Note: agents that become wide-spread due to collection and redistribution efforts may thereafter be left to passively redistribute further