Root Disease Management Course - The Five-Phase Management Process

DAY 1 or 2 - Classroom Session 2 Participant Objectives:

 The Five-Phase Management Process

About 1.5 hrs.

1. Landscape Level Hazard and Risk Assessment
2. Silviculture Prescription Walkthrough Reconnaissance
3 Disease Assessment and Stratification Survey 4. Future RiskAssessment
5. Evaluation and Final Prescription

  Become familiar with the five steps which must be performed in the management of root disease.

Be able to identify the contents of the RDM Guide which are used in conducting the five steps.



 REMINDER: If you prefer, you may present Classroom Session BEFORE Field Session 1. If you do, remember to move the more complete section of Step 1 - Landscape Level Hazard and Risk Assessment to this section.  You 'll find the freestanding section on this step just before the section on the classroom session on Root Disease Identification. The information below represents only a review of Step 1.
 Instructions  Key Points  Visual Aid

Review the RDM Guidebook's disease assessment tools.


The intent of this section is to:

- Increase the participants' knowledge of many of the details pertaining to the Five-Phase Management Process

- Be prepared to actively apply the first three steps of the process during Field Session 2

- Continue to encourage use of the RDM Guidebook when managing root disease

Refer to RDM Guidebook p 23 and tables on pp 37-38

If you have already conducted Field Session 1, you may want to discuss Step 2 in light of your field observations.

Discuss threshold levels specific to the region




REMINDER: Overheads of most tables and maps in the RDM Guidebook are provided in your Instructor's package. You can show some of them now if you want.


















Refer to RDM Guidebook p 24 & pp 27-35 )

If you are presenting this portion of the course after Field Session 1, you may want to discuss the survey methods which would be suitable for assessing the disease observed in the field.




You may also want to ask the participants to review the survey methods you will be using during Field Session 2





Discuss how management objectives might influence the survey you choose to conduct








REMINDER: Carefully read the section of survey methods to decide if you want to add more detail to the brief points included here.

Give special attention to the survey type(s) you will be demonstrating in Field Session 2
















































Refer to RDM Guidebook p 25

Tell your participants that this section, and the following section, "Evaluation and Final Prescription", will be covered in more detail in Classroom Session 3, when participants are asked to develop a prescription based on observations made during Field Session 2. If you prefer, you can spend less time on these steps in this session and make these points instead in Classroom Session 3

Discuss the observations made during Field Session 1 in regard to Future Stand Risk Assessment.





Review the RDM Guidebook's disease prescription development tools.

















Refer to RDM Guidebook, pp 37-43



Refer to RDM Guidebook, pp 37-38

REMINDER: Overheads have been made of most of the tables ill the RDM Guidebook. You may use them here if you wish.

Refer to RDM Guidebook pp 39-43



Refer to RDM Guidebook pp 44-53




















REMINDER: You may want your participants to do some reading before Field Session 2 In preparation, they should be comfortable with Steps 2 and 3 of the Five-Phase Management Process.


· Review this step in light of observations from Field Session 1

Was the level of root disease observed in the field "predicted" by the landscape level hazard and risk assessment exercise? If so/ why? If not, why not? What other factors (such as species, forestry activities, etc. ) may have had an impact on the root disease observed in the field?



- Is a forest exercise

- Is an essential step, provides an early opportunity to evaluate stand hazard and risk, plus general incidence of disease

- Objective is to provide a preliminary stratification of the site

Inherent hazard and risk +

Results of the walkthrough =

Need for Survey

Become familiar with information in threshold tables. Then, when conducting the walkthrough, look for threshold levels of the disease.

- If the walkthrough reveals that disease is PRESENT BUT BELOW MINIMUM threshold level, EITHER proceed directly to Step 3B, stratification, OR proceed to a formal survey followed by stratification IF

- the site is in a high hazard ecosystem


- the disease in question is Armillaria, which should be treated intensively wherever practicable given resource management objectives.

- If disease is BETWEEN the minimum and maximum threshold levels, a more formal survey is needed; proceed to Step 3A of the Five- Phase Management Process. Follow with Step 3B, stratification.

If disease is obviously ABOVE the maximum threshold level, then

- a formal survey is unnecessary

- proceed directly to Steps 3B - stratification, 4 - future risk assessment, and 5 - evaluation and final prescription


· OBjective is TO proV ide an accurate estimate of the disease

· Several methods are available; each has strengths and weaknesses, and they differ in their ability to provide an accurate estimate of root disease.

· When developing survey objectives, one of the PRIMARY CONSIDERATIONS is the MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES for the area.

· Other survey selection considerations include:

- As level of precision increases, so does the cost/ha of the survey (potential cost is reason for importance of well-defined objectives

- the questions that need to be answered, and the level of precision needed to answer them

- Stand management objectives: For example, a survey designed for a 40 ha cutblock will be different from a survey designed to establish cutblock harvesting, patterns over the next rotation at a landscape level.

· District Manager has final authority over any survey method used.

- Final prescriptions are submitted to the District Manager and include details on the survey method used

- If the District Manager disagrees with the survey method useds he/ she can require that a new surey be conducted

Survey suitable for all diseases:

Transect: A tree-based survey; functions as a simple method for observing and tallying disease incidence by pathogen and host.

Depending on interval selected, this method also provides a fair estimate of disease location for stratification purposes

Laminated in Coastal Stands only:

Intersection Length: An area-based survey used for coastal Laminated because of disease's tendency to form discrete, well-defined infection centers

Can set up random or systematic survey transect grids and both can be run using a mapping option if desired

Sketch Mapping: Recommended for use only in coastal stands with Laminated.

Armillaria and Laminated in Interior Stands only:

Pixel: An area-based survey for interior stands where Armillaria and Laminated are expressed in centers, scattered patches, or as individual mortality

A pixel survey is essentially a transect survey divided into short plots

Pixel is 25 m long and 3 m wide, has one lengthwise edge along thecompass line.

Intensity Measuring Pixel Survey (IMPS): Used to detect, assess, stratify Armillaria and Laminated in the interior.

Uses a variable-width pixel that samples about ten trees per pixel, grouping trees into 4 diameter classes, and as either healthy or infected. Tree counts are weighted relative to tree diameter with each pixel (i e, small infected trees represent less inoculum than large infected trees).

Thus, provides estimate of the area affected plus indication of intensity

Its advantage is that it reflects the differing contribution to total on site inoculum load by varying size of infection source


· S tump-To p ( experimental ):

Because of inconsistent expression of aboveground tree symptoms, surveying for root disease- particularly 'I'omentosus - in mature stands is difficult and costly.

When no above-ground symptoms are evident, root assessment must be done by either drilling or chopping to thle core of roots. This is expensive and time consuming.

An alternative to preharvest surveys is a postharvest stump top survey; many infected spruce trees have evidence of tomentosus infection at stump top.

Is a strictly visual assessment; surveyors must be able to distinguish between the honeycomb pattern of heartwood decay caused by Tomentosus and other patterns of decay common in spruce.


Stratification is always necessary, whether or not a formal survey has been performed or disease is not present

Objective is to look for sub-areas which may need different treatment.


Objective is to prevent the problems that call be created if only considering the short-term gain; must assess within the framework of a crop plan.

Is highly integrated with step 5 "Evaluation and Final Prescriptions"

· Is not a quantitative process but conceptual

· Should be conducted on any site for which a prescription is being created

· The Forest Health Management Triangle illustrates theconcept of Future StandRisk Assessment.

Damaging Agent +

Environment +

Potential Host +

Time =

Probability of Damage (Future Stand Risk)


Objective of Step 5 is to produce an effective method of dealing with and controlling the disease within management objectives and site ecology; and to maintain or enhance identified resource values, to ensure long- term integrity, and productivity.

Paramount consideration should be given to site ecology when creating prescriptions

Stand management objectives should be adjusted where root disease incidence, site conditions, risks, or constraints dictate

This is preferable to prescribing an inappropriate root disease management treatment which places resource management objectives and future forest health at risk of failure.

Elements of developing a prescription

Future stand risk assessment +

'I'reatment Classes +

Treatment Methods: Strategies and tactics =


Treatment Levels

· Selecting a treatlment level is an iterative process since for each disease incidence level there is a corresponding disease treatment level (minimal, alternate, and intensive)

· Determine threshold levels by using survey results and RDM Guidebook




The RDM Guidebook provides instructions for minimal, alternate, and intensive disease treatment levels for both silviculture prescriptions and stand management prescriptions.

Treatment Methods: Strategies and Tactics

· Once a treatment level has been determined, a treatment strategy(ies) can be chosen

· Different strategies are suitable for use under different circumstances

· Are four major treatment strategies for both silviculture and stand management prescriptions:

Inoculum removal

Alternate species selection

Inoculum avoidance

biological /chemical agents

· Each strategy is associated with one or more tactics

· Not all strategies/tactics are suitable for all diseases

· In addition, some are experimental. Contact Regional Pathologist for directions.

· Preferred tactics are not always practical because of other constraining factors including:

site constraints

personnel constraints

ecological constraints

stand management considerations


1. Develop several scenarios and ask participants to BRIEFLY:

Suggest survey types which could be used to assess disease levels more accurately.

Conduct a future stand risk assessment

2. Describe the site and survey methods which you will be observing in Field Session 2, and discuss the reasons for the choice of survey.

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