Appendix 3 — Summary of Stand Level
Practices and Considerations
British Columbia
Ministry of Forests
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Appendix 3 — Summary of Stand Level Practices and Considerations
     

Table 3 is a summary of practices and considerations that should be recognized when planning for the maintenance of stand level biodiversity. It is important to note that by maintaining one or more of the six stand structural elements, more than one management objective can often be met.

For example, effective planning of wildlife tree patches can also maintain on-site levels of coarse woody debris and forest floor litter, incorporate special habitats, and enhance visual quality.

Any of the recommendations described below must be considered in light of the overall management objectives for the stand as well as the larger scale planning unit.

     
 TABLE 3. Summary of practices and considerations when planning for the maintenance of elements of stand level biodiversity
 
STAGE:  Harvesting
Stand Structure Wildlife trees Coarse woody debris Forest floor Special habitats Species Composition

Type of silvicultural system

Level of retention
– variable residual basal area

Use of reserves
– can meet multiple objectives
– type
– location
– size
Harvesting method
– ground (skidder, horse)
– cable (high-lead, skyline)
– aerial (heli, balloon)
– falling pattern

Cutblock design
– size
– shape
– location

Natural disturbance forces
– fire
– insect
– disease
– windthrow
– avalanche/landslide

Type of silvicultural system

Use of reserves (WTPs); consider:
– condition of surrounding landscape and adjacent habitat features
– size
– location
– shape
– composition
  - species mix
  - age
– condition
  - decay class

Individual live tree retention (includes seed and shelterwood trees)
– density
– distribution
– condition

Blowdown
– consider windthrow hazard when planning wildlife tree retention

Worker safety; consider
– patch location and size
– assessment of potential hazards to work area by qualified assessor
– harvesting method

Utilization standards

Harvesting methods
– ground
– grapple
– high-leadĚ
– skyline
– aerial

Maintain ecosystem specific, on-site target levels

Leave a range of piece size (length and diameter)

In mixed wood ecosystems, coniferous material is generally more valuable than deciduous. Where possible, CWD left across a site is more valuable

Manage reserve trees in WTPs or as individual leave trees

Consider other objectives (e.g., forest health and protection) when setting CWD objectives in the FDP and SP

Use of reserves
– size
– location

Soil/site degradation standards
– use of machinery

Maintain native plant species

Follow riparian management (RMA) guidelines and standards

Relate to landscape level planning and retention strategies (e.g., FENs, visual quality objectives)

Consider road and landing location

Where appropriate, determine whether to stratify treatment unit by site association, then decide on treatment

Create standing dead trees if necessary

Protect rare and endangered species

Maintain native plant species

Trees that are uncommon should have preference for retention either singly or in groups

Leave some mature and immature deciduous species

Conserve understory plant communities

 
STAGE: Post-Harvesting >  Site Prep  >  Fire
Stand Structure Wildlife trees Coarse woody debris Forest floor Special habitats Species Composition

Should be appropriate to the ecosystem

Burn type
– spot burn

Use of fireguards

Burn seasons
– cool burns

Fuel loading

Spot burn

Consider site prep techniques

Minimize removal of CWD

Spot burn

Consider site prep techniques

Spot burn

Spot burn

Maintain native plant species

STAGE: Post-Harvesting >  Site Prep  > Chemical
Stand Structure Wildlife trees Coarse woody debris Forest floor Special habitats Species Composition

Spot treatment
– individual stems
– skips (for aerial)

         
STAGE: Post-Harvesting >  Site Prep  > Mechanical
Stand Structure Wildlife trees Coarse woody debris Forest floor Special habitats Species Composition

Spot treatment

Hand treatment

         
STAGE: Post-Harvesting >  Site Prep  > Planting
Stand Structure Wildlife trees Coarse woody debris Forest floor Special habitats Species Composition

Variable stocking density

Considering planting versus natural regeneration

Variable density spacing

Mix of tree species

Retain safe wildlife trees (must assess)

Variable stocking density

Variable stocking density

Variable stocking density

Variable stocking density

Mix of naturally occurring tree species

Maintain patches of advance regeneration

STAGE: Post-Harvesting >  Site Prep  > Juvenile spacing
Stand Structure Wildlife trees Coarse woody debris Forest floor Special habitats Species Composition

Variable density thinning

Mix of tree species

Variable density spacing

Retain safe trees (must assess)

Variable density spacing

Variable density thinning

Variable density spacing

Clumpy spacing

Mix of tree species

STAGE: Post-Harvesting >  Site Prep  > Commercial thinning
Stand Structure Wildlife trees Coarse woody debris Forest floor Special habitats Species Composition
 

Variable density thinning

Plan location of WTPs

Create standing dead trees if necessary

Variable density thinning

 

Variable density thinning

Mix of tree species

 
STAGE: Range
Stand Structure Wildlife trees Coarse woody debris Forest floor Special habitats Species Composition

Establish range management objectives according to the desired plant communities (DCPs) and site potentials

Determine appropriate stock rates for grazing animals (consider both livestock and wildlife and monitor rangeland conditions

Prescribed burning
– location
– extentĚ
– intensity

 

Higher debris levels can be an impediment to livestock movements

Prescribed burning to control debris levels and encourage forage production

Maintain turf, avoid compaction

Control grazing in sensitive habitats such as riparian areas
– location
– season
– duration and rotation
– use of exclosures
– use and location of mineral salt licks
– provide alternate water sources

Control stock numbers and class of livestock (e.g., cow-calf, steer, horse) and levels of use

Maintain native plant species

 
STAGE: Others
Stand Structure Wildlife trees Coarse woody debris Forest floor Special habitats Species Composition
 

Monitor/regulate access management to limit removal of standing dead trees for firewood

       
 
     
  Next: Appendix 4 — Learning strategies
 

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