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Spruce (Sx)

The relatively short, cool growing season for most spruce sites and its sensitivity to frost requires careful attention to timing of planting, spot preparation, and selection of planting microsites. Check the species prescription for spruce is suitable for the site conditions after logging. Consider the risk of frost, winter desiccation, terminal weevil, and seasonal drought before finalizing the species selection. If in doubt about the acceptability of Sx, consider substituting or augmenting the planting with Pli or Bl, consider the potential for site preparation, and make the best use of microsites to protect the seedlings.

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Spruce (Sx)

Lodgepole Pine (Pli/Plc)

Western Redcedar (Cw)

Coastal Douglas-fir (Fdc)

Interior Douglas-fir (Fdi)

Sitka Spruce (Ss and Sxs)

Western Larch (Lw)

Western White Pine (Pw)

Yellow Pine (Py)

Subalpine Fir (Bl)

Amabilis Fir (Ba)

Noble Fir (Bn)

Grand Fir (Bg)

Western Hemlock (Hw)

Mountain Hemlock (Hm)

Yellow-cedar (Yc)

Hardwoods

Native Shrubs

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Sowing Trends ­ 1993/1998
Species:   Spruce (Sx)

  1993 1998

% of total sowing of Sx
     1 + 0
     BBR/PBR
     copper treated
64
8
3
80
1
4
# of stock types 18 15
Dominant container types 415B/313B 415B/410
Smallest container type 211A 211A
Largest container type 615A 615A
Quantity sown (K) 90 886 56 484

New stock types since 1993:  412A/512A/515A/PAP

Pie graph showing Sx stock type profile, 1998 sowing.


Plate 20.   Sx stock types. (Arrowheads indicate target heights.)

Sx stock types.


The major limiting factors that Sx stock type selection can address are vegetation competition (herbs, shrubs, and grasses), snowpress, and duff depth. Vigorous seedling performance is crucial to overcoming these limiting factors. To address vegetation competition and/or snowpress, select stock types with a high sturdiness ratio and do not accept reductions in the root collar diameter specifications.

For the most severe vegetative competition, the PSB 415D 1+0 Sp and/or 2+0 Su or larger stock types are recommended. The compact top and good sturdiness ratio of the PSB 410, PSB 412, and PSB 512 1+0 stock types may be advantageous for sites prone to snowpress.

Sx is often planted on sites with a high frost heaving hazard (exposed moist fine-textured soils) (see "Frost and winter desiccation"). Growing Sx in PCT containers to promote upper plug rooting may be advantageous in areas of high frost heaving and/or winter desiccation hazard.

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Sx stock type suitability.

Sx Limiting factors
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spacer graphic Season Vegetation competition Snow-
press
Animal damage Shallow soils Fine-
textured soils
Winter desiccation*

Recommended stock types:
PSB 313B 1+0 Sp, Su Poor Poor Poor Fair Fair Fair
PSB 410 1+0 Sp, Su Poor Fair Poor Good Poor Good
PSB 415B 1+0 Sp, Su Fair Fair Fair Poor Good Poor
PSB 412A 1+0 Sp, Su Fair Good Fair Good Fair Good
PSB 415D 1+0 Sp, Su Good Fair Good Poor Good Poor
PSB 512A 1+0 Sp, Su Good Good Good Good Fair Poor
PSB 515A 1+0 Sp, Su Good Good Good Poor Good Poor
PSB 615A 1+0 Sp, Su Good Good Good Poor Good Poor
PSB 415B 2+0 Su Fair Fair Fair Poor Good Poor
PSB 415D 2+0 Su, Sp Good Good Good Poor Good Poor
PSB 515A 2+0 Su, Sp Good Good Good Poor Good Poor
PSB 615A 2+0 Su, Sp Good Good Good Poor Good Poor
PBR .5+1.5** Su, Sp Good Good Good Poor Good Poor
PPT 515A .5+.5 Su, Sp Good Good Good Poor Good Poor

* Particularly significant in boreal forest areas with low snow cover (e.g., Peace River).
** Suitable stock type if a) handling requirements can be met, and b) soil depth is greater than 30 cm.

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