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Lodgepole Pine (Pli/Plc)

Pli withstands drought and frost better than Fdi, Py, or Sx. The drought tolerance of Pli enables its use under site and planting conditions unacceptable for other species. Pli also can endure browsing and trampling -- better than Fdi. It is, however, very prone to snow damage.

The major limiting factors Pli stock type selection can address are animal damage, vegetation competition, snowpress, and shallow soils or droughty conditions.

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Spruce (Sx)

Lodgepole Pine (Pli/Plc)

Western Redcedar (Cw)

Coastal Douglas-fir (Fdc)

Interior Douglas-fir (Fdi)

Sitka Spruce (Ss and Sxs)

Western Larch (Lw)

Western White Pine (Pw)

Yellow Pine (Py)

Subalpine Fir (Bl)

Amabilis Fir (Ba)

Noble Fir (Bn)

Grand Fir (Bg)

Western Hemlock (Hw)

Mountain Hemlock (Hm)

Yellow-cedar (Yc)

Hardwoods

Native Shrubs

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Sowing Trends ­ 1993/1998
Species:   Lodgepole pine (Pli)

  1993 1998

% of total sowing of Pli
     1 + 0
     BBR/PBR
     copper treated
95
5
57
98
5
67
# of stock types 23 20
Dominant container types 313B 313B/410
Smallest container type 211A 211A
Largest container type 415D 615A
Quantity sown (K) 102 048 83 551.5

New stock types since 1993:  412A/615A

Pie graph showing Pli stock type profile, 1998 sowing.

Pine leaf morphology

Container-grown Pli seedlings can be produced with two types of needle morphology. Primary needles are the first single needles produced by Pli (Plate 21a). Depending upon the species, this morphology may quickly change into secondary needles or, as in the case of Pli, may continue until the end of the first growing season. On Pli, primary needles seldom persist on the seedling beyond the first year of outplanting. Secondary needles are the first true fascicle needles (Plate 21b). Secondary needles can be induced by nursery cultural techniques. The development of secondary needles in Pli is accompanied by differences in bud morphology (Plate 22) and larger stem diameters. Secondary needle Pli is considered to be more drought resistant than primary needle Pli, a possible advantage for droughty sites. However, a recent trial comparing survival and growth of primary- versus secondary-needle pine produced no evidence of benefits associated with secondary needles (C. Hawkins, pers. comm.).

Plate 21.   Pli needle morphology: a) Pli primary needle morphology (on left); b) Pli secondary needle morphology (on right). Secondary needles (fascicled) originate in the axils of the primary needles.

Pli primary needle morphology.Pli secondary needle morphology.


Plate 22.   Bud morphology of secondary-needle (left) and primary-needle (right) Pli. Primary-needle Pli usually has a single terminal bud. Secondary-needle Pli generally has multiple buds in the terminal position.

Bud morphology.


Plate 23.   Pli/Plc stock types. Note the differences between the copper-treated plugs and the non-treated plugs. PCT roots end at the plug wall and have no secondary roots. The PSB roots show branched rooting morphology. (Arrowheads indicate target heights.)

Pli/Plc stock types.


Container-grown Pli has, historically, been grown in British Columbia as primary needle seedlings. Although primary needles are still the most common morphology, container-grown Pli with secondary needles has been planted since 1990. BBR 2+0 Pli seedlings have only secondary needles. The relative field performance and nursery cultural controls for achieving secondary needles are still poorly known. Silviculturists should be aware of the form of Pli that they are receiving and determine the relative merits of these different morphologies.

PCT stock types are recommended for Pli (see "Copper-treated containers"). For mesic Pli sites, the PCT 313B 1+0 or PCT 410 1+0 is recommended. The PCT 415B 1+0 or larger stock types are rarely necessary under such conditions. The PCT 410, PCT 412A, and PCT 512A are appropriate on shallow soil and/or droughty sites.

Due to its vigorous nursery growth, never order Pli as 2+0 container stock. Although not generally recommended, Pli is still grown in PCT 211A containers. The PCT 313B or PCT 410 are preferred alternatives.

BBR 1+0 and 2+0 are no longer widely used due to the easier handling requirements of container stock.

Caution:   Pli is often planted on sites with a high frost heaving hazard (exposed moist fine-textured soils). See "Frost and winter desiccation".

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Pli/Plc stock type suitability.

Pli/ Plc Limiting factors
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spacer graphic Season Vegetation competition Snow-
press
Animal trampling Animal browse Drought Shallow soils Fine-
textured soils

Recommended stock types:
PCT 211A 1+0 Sp Poor Good Fair Poor Fair Good Poor
PCT 313B 1+0 Sp Fair Good Fair Poor Fair Fair Poor
PCT 410 1+0 Sp, Su Good Good Fair Fair Fair Good Fair
PCT 415B 1+0 Sp, Su Good Fair Fair Fair Fair Poor Good
PCT 412A 1+0 Sp, Su Good Good Fair Fair Fair Good Good
PCT 415D 1+0 Sp, Su Good Fair Good Good Fair Poor Good
PCT 512A 1+0 Sp, Su Good Good Good Good Fair Good Good
BBR 2+0* Sp only Good Fair Fair Good Poor Poor Fair

* Suitable stock type if: a) handling requirements can be met; and b) soil depth is greater than 30 cm.

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