Research Branch

See below to download.

The Lichens of British Columbia Illustrated Keys Part 2 - Fruticose Species

Author(s) or contact(s): T. Goward
Source: Research Branch
Subject: Botany
Series: Special Report Series
Other details:  Published 1999. Hardcopy is available.


This manual adopts a broad interpretation of the fruticose life form. Included here are all lichen genera - both macrolichens and microlichens - in which a majority of species bear stalks or branches that are roughly circular in cross-section. Although fruticose microlichens are traditionally regarded as crustose, they are included here owing to their dominant stalked sexual or asexual reproductive structures. Examples of fruticose microlichens include Calicium, Chaenotheca, Gyalideopsis, and Microlychnus.

Two primary objectives have guided the preparation of this manual:
- to briefly summarize the ecology, distribution, and frequency status of all fruticose lichens known to occur in British Columbia.
- to stimulate lichenological research by making these lichens accessible to a broad audience.

Download Special Report 9 (complete document) PDF file (7461 KB)

Cover to page 21 (1543 KB)

Page 22 to page 44 (984 KB)

Page 45 to page 115 (1031 KB)

Page 116 to page 185 (928 KB)

Page 186 to page 268 (1174 KB)

Page 269 to page 278 (1071 KB)

Page 279 to page 287 (1087 KB)

Page 288 to end (871 KB)

To view this document you need the current version of
Adobe Acrobat Reader, available free from the Adobe Web Site.

Updated April 19, 2007