Ministry of Forests Annual Report 1993/94 Table of Contents]


Allowable annual cut (AAC)
The amount of timber that can be harvested each year from defined areas of forest on Crown lands, such as timber supply areas (TSAs) or tree farm licence (TFL) areas. AACs are determined by the chief forester in accordance with Section 7 of the Forest Act.

Animal unit month (AUM)
The amount of food or plant material eaten in one month by an average-weight beef cow, aged six months or older.

Available volumes
The portion of total inventory volumes that is available for harvesting after all management constraints on timber harvesting have been considered, including definition of the timber harvesting land base, age of tree merchantability, deferrals, and any other priorities or constraints on timber harvesting.

Biodiversity (biological diversity)
Diversity of plants, animals and other living organisms in all their forms and levels of organization, including genes, species and ecosystems, and the evolutionary and functional processes that link them.

A silviculture activity done by chemical, manual, grazing or mechanical means to control competing forest vegetation, and to reduce competition with crop trees or seedlings for space, light, moisture and nutrients.

A silvicultural system that generally removes an entire stand or crop of trees in a single harvest, creating a fully exposed area with a distinct microclimate. The previous stand is replaced with an even-aged crop of new trees, either through planting or natural regeneration.

Clearcutting with reserves
A variation of the clearcutting system that retains a variable number of reserve trees, either uniformly or in small groups, for purposes other than regeneration.

That geographic area west of the Cascade Mountains, as officially delineated by the Cascade Mountains Administrative Line through British Columbia from Washington State to Alaska, including the lower Fraser River area south of Hell’s Gate (south of Boston Bar), taking in the Coquihalla, Silverhope and Skagit river drainages lying east of the line, but excluding the portions of the Kalum Forest District and the Cariboo Forest Region lying west of the line.

Commercial thinning
A partial cut in older, immature stands where trees have reached merchantable size and value, carried out to provide an interim harvest while maintaining or restoring a high rate of growth on well-spaced final crop trees.

Conventional logging
In the Interior, any combination of mechanical or hand-felling, and rubber-tired or tracked skidding equipment. On the Coast, cable logging.

An even-aged silvicultural system in which all trees in a forest stand are harvested, and regeneration is secured from sprouts or root suckers.

Commission on Resources and Environment (CORE)
An independent commission established to develop and test land-use planning processes, in consultation with stakeholders.

Critical wildlife habitat
Part or all of a specific place occupied by a wildlife species or a population of such species, recognized as essential for the maintenance of the population.

Culturally modified trees
Trees and remnants of trees that have been intentionally altered by native people as part of their traditional use of the forest.

A specific area, with defined boundaries, authorized for harvest.

Cutblock adjacency guidelines
Integrated management guidelines that specify the desired spatial relationship among cutblocks. They can be approximated by specifying the maximum allowable proportion of a forested landscape that does not meet green-up requirements.

Cutting permit
A legal document that authorizes the holder to harvest trees, under a licence issued by the Forest Service, under the Forest Act.

Designated heritage trail
A trail with provincial cultural or heritage significance that has been designated under the Heritage Conservation Act.

Designated wilderness
A part of the provincial forest designated as wilderness area by order-in-council under authority of the Forest Act.

Diameter limit
The removal of trees from a stand, based on the criterion of diameter. Generally, trees of less than a predetermined diameter are left unharvested.

A functional unit consisting of all the living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in a given area, and all of the non-living physical and chemical factors of their environment, linked together through nutrient cycling and energy flow. An ecosystem can be of any size – a log, pond, field or forest, or the Earth’s biosphere – but it always functions as a whole unit. Ecosystems are commonly described according to their major type of vegetation.

Even-aged stand
A stand in which there are fewer than three distinct age classes of trees. An age class is a range of ages within 20 per cent of the rotation length (e.g., if the rotation length is 100 years, appropriate age classes would be 0 to 20 years, 21 to 40 years, etc.).

The application of fertilizer to promote tree growth on sites deficient in one or more soil nutrients.

Fire season
The period April 15 to October 15, or any other period ordered by the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council.

The food or plant material eaten by livestock.

Forest cover objectives
Desired distributions of areas by age or size class groupings. These objectives can be used to reflect desired conditions for wildlife, watershed protection, visual quality and other integrated resource management objectives.

Forest cover type
The classification or label given to a forest stand, usually based on its tree-species composition. Pure spruce stands and spruce-balsam mixed stands are two examples.

Forest development plan
An operational plan guided by the principles of integrated resource management (the consideration of timber and non-timber values) that details the logistics of timber development over a period of usually five years. Methods, schedules and responsibilities for accessing, harvesting, renewing and protecting the resource are set out to enable site-specific operations to proceed.

Forest health
A forest condition that is naturally resilient to damage: characterized by biodiversity, it contains sustained habitat for timber, fish, wildlife and humans, and meets present and future resource management objectives.

Forest health treatments
The application of techniques to influence pest or beneficial organism populations, mitigate damage, or reduce the risk of future damage to forest stands. Treatments can be either proactive (e.g., spacing trees to reduce risk of attack by bark beetles), or reactive (e.g., spraying with insecticides to treat outbreaks of gypsy moth).

Forest inventory
A survey of forest area to determine such data as area condition, timber, volume and species for specific purposes such as planning, purchase, evaluation, management or harvesting.

Forest licence
An agreement entered into under Part 3, Division 2 of the Forest Act. A forest licence provides for the management and harvesting of Crown timber from within a specific timber supply area, in accordance with an approved allowable annual cut.

Forest Practices Code
The Forest Practices Code is a comprehensive package of legislation, regulations, standards and field guides governing forest practices in British Columbia. With jurisdiction over all public land, and all private land in tree farm licences (TFLs) and woodlot licences, the Code sets rigorous standards for forest management, and enforces them with tough penalties to ensure that forest practices are environmentally sustainable.

Forest resources
Resources or values associated with forest land, including but not limited to water, wildlife, fisheries, recreation, timber, range and heritage.

Forest type
A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition that differentiates it from other such groups.

Free growing
An established seedling of an acceptable commercial species, meeting a minimum height, that is free from growth-inhibiting brush, weed and excessive tree competition.

Grazing fee
The price charged for food or forage used by livestock or tenure holders on Crown range in any year. Units of measure are the animal unit month (AUM) or the metric tonne.

See “Hydrologic green-up” and “Visual cover or visual green-up.”

Green-up period
The time needed for a stand of trees to reach a desired density and height to ensure maintenance of water quality, wildlife habitat, soil stability, or aesthetics.

Group selection
A silvicultural system in which trees from a stand are removed and regenerated in small groups. The size of each group or opening is normally no larger than twice the height of a mature tree. The objective of the group-selection system is to manage an entire block, or stand, as a composite of various-aged groups.

Growing stock
The sum (by number, basal area, or volume) of trees in a forest or a specified part of the forest.

Harvest pattern
The spatial distribution of cutblocks and reserve areas across the forested landscape.

Hydrologic green-up
The height and density a stand must reach to restore hydrologic conditions, such as timing and quantity of water, to what they were before harvest.

Impact assessment
A study of the effect of resource development on other resources and other values (e.g., social and economic values).

Incremental silviculture
Treatments such as spacing, pruning and fertilization that are carried out to maintain or increase the yield and value of forest stands.

Refers to areas having merchantable timber that cannot be harvested economically using current harvest technology, because of some physical barrier, such as a hanging valley, and to areas containing small patches of overmature timber surrounded by large areas of young stands.

Integrated resource management
The identification and consideration of all resource values, including social, economic and environmental needs, in land-use and development decision-making. It focuses on resource use, and land use and management, and is based on a good knowledge of ecological systems, the capability of the land, and the mixture of possible benefits.

Integrated Silviculture Information System (ISIS)
An information management system that captures and processes land-based information required by the Silviculture Program at district, regional and branch levels. It is a comprehensive planning and management tool with powerful recording and reporting capabilities.

That geographic area east of the Cascade Mountains, as officially delineated by the Cascade Mountains Administrative Line through British Columbia from Washington State to Alaska, including the portions of the Kalum Forest District and Cariboo Forest Region lying west of the line, but excluding the lower Fraser River area south of Hell’s Gate (south of Boston Bar), taking in the Coquihalla, Silverhope and Skagit river drainages lying east of the line.

Interpretive forest site
A designated forest site and ancillary facilities developed by the Ministry of Forests to interpret, demonstrate or facilitate discussion of the natural environment, forest practices, and resource management.

An irregular limestone region with sinks, underground streams, and caverns.

Land and Resource Management Plan (LRMP)
A consensus-building process involving a cross section of the public, interest groups, and government agencies to establish resource-management objectives and strategies for a management area (usually a timber supply area).

Licence to cut
An agreement under the Forest Act allowing a person who purchases or occupies land, who does not otherwise have the right to harvest Crown timber from the land, to cut and/or remove timber on the land.

In even-aged management, those trees or stands that are sufficiently developed to be harvestable, and which are at or near rotation age (includes overmature trees and stands if an overmature class has not been recognized).

Non-timber resource values
Values within the forest other than timber, which include but are not limited to biodiversity, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural and heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values.

Not satisfactorily restocked (NSR)
Productive forest land that has failed to regenerate to acceptable stocking standards for the area. If the expected regeneration delay (the period of time between harvesting and the date by which an area is occupied by a specified minimum number of acceptable well-spaced trees) has not elapsed, the land is defined as current NSR. If the expected delay has elapsed, the land is classified as backlog NSR.

Old growth
A forest that contains live and dead trees of various sizes, species, composition and age-class structure. Old-growth forests, as part of a slowly changing but dynamic ecosystem, include climax forests, but not sub-climax or mid-seral forests. The age and structure of old growth varies significantly by forest type, and from one biogeoclimatic zone to another.

Old-growth management areas
Areas that contain specific structural old-growth attributes, and which are mapped out and treated as special management areas.

The availability of an area for timber harvesting. Operability is determined using the terrain characteristics of the area, as well as the quality and quantity of timber on the area.

Partial cutting
A general term referring to silvicultural systems other than clearcutting, in which only selected trees are harvested. Partial-cutting systems include seed tree, shelterwood, selection and coppice, plus diameter limit and salvage harvesting operations.

Partitioned cut
Specific portions of an allowable annual cut assigned to a particular type of timber or terrain.

Pre-harvest silviculture
A site-specific plan to carry out a series of silviculture treatments, to a free-prescription (PHSP) growing state, consistent with integrated resource management objectives set for the area.

Prescribed fire
The knowledgeable application of fire to a specific unit of land to meet predetermined resource management objectives.

Protected areas
Areas such as provincial and federal designations, wilderness areas, ecological reserves, and recreation areas that have protected designations according to federal and provincial statutes. Protected areas are land, provincial wilderness conservancy, and freshwater or marine areas set aside to protect the province’s diverse natural and cultural heritage. Protected areas are inalienable: the land and resources may not be sold, and no industrial resource extraction or development is permitted. No mining, logging, or oil and gas development will occur, and no hydro dams will be located within protected areas, which are set aside to protect recreational as well as natural and cultural heritage features.

Pulpwood agreement
An agreement entered into under Part 3, Division 6 of the Forest Act. A pulpwood agreement allows the holder of a wood-processing facility to harvest Crown pulp timber, if sufficient quantities of raw material are not available to the holder from other sources.

Range fees
Fees charged for services provided to tenure holders or applicants as provided for under the Range Act regulations, and as detailed in a schedule of fees and charges.

The renewal of a forest stand by seed from adjacent stands, or seed deposited by wind, birds or animals, or by planting or direct seeding.

Regeneration delay
The maximum period of time between harvesting and the date by which an area is occupied by a specified minimum number of well-spaced trees of the preferred and acceptable species.

Riparian area
The land adjacent to the normal high-water line in a stream, river, lake, pond or wetland, and extending to the portion of land that is influenced by the presence of the adjacent ponded or channeled water. Riparian areas typically exemplify a rich and diverse vegetative mosaic reflecting the influence of available surface water.

The period of years required to establish and grow timber crops to a specified condition of maturity.

Seed orchard
A plantation of specially selected trees that is managed for the production of genetically improved seed.

Seed-tree system
An even-aged silvicultural system that leaves selected trees (seed trees) standing after the initial harvest, to provide a seed source for natural regeneration. Seed trees can be left either uniformly distributed, or in small groups. Although the reforestation is generally secured naturally, it may be augmented by planting. Seed trees are often removed once regeneration is established.

Selection system
A planned sequence of treatments designed to maintain and regenerate a stand with three or more age classes. There are two selection systems: single-tree selection, and group selection.

Selective logging
The removal of trees from a stand with minimal regard for future timber crops, or silviculture planning. Selective logging is analogous to high grading, and should not be confused with the selection silvicultural system.

Shelterwood system
A silvicultural system in which mature trees are removed in a series of cuttings designed to establish a new, even-aged stand under the shelter of remaining trees. Remaining mature trees provide protection, shelter, and a source of seed for developing regeneration.

Silvicultural system
A planned cycle of activities by which a forest stand or group of trees is harvested, regenerated and tended over time. Silvicultural systems used in British Columbia are clearcutting, seed tree, shelterwood and selection. The name of each system reflects the type of forest structure created after harvest.

Single-tree selection
A silvicultural system in which new age classes are created by the removal of individual trees of all size classes, more or less uniformly throughout the stand, to maintain an uneven-aged stand structure.

An area described or defined by its biotic, climatic and soil conditions in relation to its capacity to produce vegetation; the smallest planning unit.

Site preparation
The treatment of the soil and ground vegetation to prepare the soil surface as a favorable seedbed for either disseminated seed, or for planted seedlings.

Site productivity
Traditionally, the inherent capability of an area to grow successive crops of trees. Can also be expanded to include other forest resource capabilities such as forage, recreation, fishers, wildlife and water.

Site sensitivity
The inherent susceptibility of a site to soil-degrading processes caused by forest-management activities.

The tree residue left on the ground as a result of forest and other vegetation being altered by forest practices, or other land-use activities. Slash includes materials such as logs, splinters or chips, tree branches and tops, uprooted stumps, and broken or uprooted trees and shrubs.

Small Business Forest Enterprise Program (SBFEP)
A program through which the Ministry of Forests sells Crown timber competitively to qualified individuals and firms. Approximately 13 per cent of the provincial allowable annual cut is directed toward this program.

The removal of undesirable trees within a young stand to control stocking, to maintain or improve growth, to increase wood quality and value, or to achieve other resource-management objectives.

The price charged by the Ministry of Forests for timber harvested from most Crown land. The rates vary according to market prices for lumber and logs, and according to estimates of delivered wood costs.

The concept of producing, in perpetuity, a steady flow of biological resources, through management practices.

Timber licence
An area-based, non-replaceable tenure that confers on the licence holder the exclusive right to harvest all merchantable timber on Crown land within the defined boundaries of the licence.

Timber sale licence (TSL)
An agreement entered into under Part 3, Division 3 of the Forest Act. A TSL permits the harvesting of Crown timber in a described area by licensees having allowable annual cuts, by operators registered in the SBFEP, or by others with temporary cutting rights, and holders of pulpwood agreements.

Timber supply
The volume of timber available for harvesting over time, using particular management practices.

Timber supply area (TSA)
An area of the province designated by the Ministry of Forests for the purpose of analysis, planning and management of timber resources. Boundaries have been determined on the basis of present and expected population centres, transportation networks, manufacturing facilities, and existing administrative boundaries. The harvesting limits for TSAs, called allowable annual cuts (AACs), are determined by the chief forester. Many types and sizes of harvesting agreements may exist within a TSA.

Tree farm licence (TFL)
A privately managed, sustained-yield unit area in which the Crown adds forest land to a company’s private holdings (if any) sufficient to provide a continuous supply of wood for an existing or planned mill. The private and Crown lands comprising the licence are described as Schedule A lands or Schedule B lands. Schedule A lands are Crown-granted lands (privately owned lands), or Crown lands with timber alienated (such as licences, leases and timber berths) that are now included in the licence area. Schedule B lands are Crown lands on which the timber is fully committed by the province to the licensee. The harvesting limits for TFLs, called allowable annual cuts (AACs), are determined by the chief forester.

Uneven-aged stand
A stand composed of three or more distinct age classes of trees, either uniformly mixed (single-tree selection), or in small groups (group selection).

Visual cover or visual green-up
A term used by wildfire specialists when referring to security cover, or a stand’s ability to provide cover from human disturbance, and from threat of predators, particularly for deer and elk. The height, density and species of the composition of the overstory and understory vegetation, as well as the diversity of the topography, determine a stand’s ability to provide security cover.

Visually effective green-up
The stage at which regeneration is perceived by the public as newly established forest. When visually effective green-up is achieved, the forest cover generally blocks views of tree stumps, logging debris, and bare ground. Distinctions in height, color and texture may remain in comparison with the adjacent forest, but will not be perceived as recently cut over.

Visual quality objective (VQO)
A resource-management objective that reflects the maintenance of a desired level of visual quality based on the physical characteristics for an area; refers to the degree of acceptable human alteration to the characteristic landscape.

An area of land generally greater than 1,000 hectares that predominantly retains its natural character, and on which the impact of people is transitory and, in the long run, substantially unnoticeable.

An unplanned or unwanted natural or human-caused fire, or a prescribed fire that threatens to escape its bounds.

Woodlot licence
An agreement entered into under Part 3, Division 7 of the Forest Act. It is similar to a tree farm licence, but on a smaller scale, and allows for small-scale forestry to be practised in a prescribed area (Crown and private land) on a sustained-yield basis.