This guide briefly outlines the principles and methods of the classification system, stressing the two primary areas of emphasis within the classification, the biogeoclimatic (zones, subzones) and the ecosystematic (ecosystem association and their phases and variations). It summarizes the environmental characteristics of the Sub-Boreal Spruce Biogeoclimatic Zone (SBS) and three of its subzones, the SBSa or "pine - spruce" subzone, the SBSd or "spruce" subzone, and the SBSe or "subalpine fir" subzone. The classification of the SBSd and e at the ecosystematic level is then presented in detail.
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Updated December 16, 2008