Index of Trees

apple, Pacific crab hawthorn, black
alder, mountain hemlock, mountain
alder, red hemlock, western
arbutus juniper, Rocky Mountain
aspen, trembling larch, alpine
birch, Alaska paper larch, western
birch, paper maple, bigleaf
birch, water maple, Douglas
cascara maple, vine
cedar, western redcedar oak, Garry
cedar, yellow-cedar pine, limber
cherry, bitter pine, lodgepole
cherry, choke pine, ponderosa (yellow pine)
cherry, pin pine, western white
cottonwood, black (poplar, balsam) pine, whitebark
dogwood, Pacific spruce, black
• Douglas-fir spruce, Engelmann
fir, amabilis spruce, Sitka
fir, grand spruce, white
fir, subalpine tamarack
  yew, western

Key for Identifying Trees with Needles or Scales

Trees with scale-like leaves

western redcedar Cones egg-shaped
yellow-cedar Cones round
Rocky Mountain juniper Cones fleshy and berry-like

Trees with needles in bundles of 2, 3 or 5

lodgepole pine Needles in bundles of 2
ponderosa or yellow pine Needles in bundles of 3
whitebark pine Needles in bundles of 5, small cones, grows at high elevations
limber pine Needles in bundles of 5, large cones, grows at high elevations
western white pine Needles in bundles of 5, large cones, not at high elevations

Trees with bundles of many needles

western larch Bundles of 15 to 30 needles, grows in southern B.C.
tamarack Bundles of 15 to 25 needles, grows in northern B.C.
alpine larch Bundles of 30 to 40 needles, grows in subalpine areas

Trees with needles not in bundles

Needles with four sides and stalks

white spruce Grows at lower elevations, needles sharp and stiff, edge of cone scales round
Engelmann spruce Grows at higher elevations, edge of cone scales ragged
Sitka spruce Grows in coastal areas, needles slightly flattened
black spruce Grows in northern areas, clump of branches on the top of tree

Needles flat, usually with a notch at the end; cones upright

grand fir Needles on upper side of the twig point sideways
amabilis fir Needles on upper side of the twig point upwards
subalpine fir All needles appearing to point upwards

Needles flat, with blunt ends

western hemlock Needles different lengths, top branch of tree droops
mountain hemlock Needles same length, curved upwards, grows at higher elevations

Needles flat with pointed tips

Douglas-fir Cones with a three-forked bract
western yew Fruit red and berry-like

Key for Identifying Trees with Broad Leaves

Leaves in opposite pairs

Pacific dogwood Leaves no lobes, veins parallel, showy white flowers
bigleaf maple Leaves with 5 lobes, very large
Douglas maple Leaves with 3 to 5 lobes and coarsely toothed edges
vine maple Leaves with 7 to 9 lobes, almost circular

Leaves alternating

arbutus Leaves evergreen, red bark peels in flakes
black hawthorn Leaves oval, branches have thorns
cascara Leaves oblong, veins parallel
Garry oak Leaves with rounded lobes, with acorns

Trees with fleshy fruit

Pacific crab apple Small red apples, egg-shaped leaves
choke cherry Long cluster of dark purple berries
pin cherry Flat-topped cluster of bright red berries
bitter cherry Loose cluster of dark red berries

Trees with catkins

Catkins woody

red alder Leaves with rounded teeth and edges rolled under
mountain alder Leaf edges are double-toothed, small tree or shrub

Catkins fall apart easily

Alaska paper birch Twigs are densely covered in bumpy resin glands
paper birch Leaves triangle-shaped, bark peels readily
water birch Leaves oval-shaped, bark shiny and dark

Catkins bead-like

balsam poplar
black cottonwood
releasing fluffy white seeds

Catkins small

trembling aspen

smooth white bark, leaves "tremble" in the wind


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