Advanced generation seed orchard: produces higher quality genetically improved seed than original “first generation” seed orchards. The trees in these orchards are the product of years of breeding and testing research.
Age class: any interval into which the age range of trees, forests, stands or forest types is divided for classification and use. The intervals are usually based on age-in-tens.
Alienate: to voluntarily transfer title to property; to convey.
Alienation: any land that has had its “right-to-use” transferred from the Crown through grant, lease or permit or has a special interest noted, as in reserves. Such a land designation may be permanent or temporary.
Allowable annual cut (AAC): the annual rate of timber harvesting specified for an area of land by the chief forester. The chief forester sets AACs for timber supply areas (TSAs) and tree farm licences (TFLs) in accordance with Section 7 of the Forest Act and for Certified Tree Farms in accordance with the Assessment Act.
Alluvial forest: forest growing on alluvium or fine, fertile soil deposited by water during a time of flood.
Animal unit month (AUM): the amount of forage consumed by a 454 kilogram (1000 pound) cow, either dry or with calf up to six months of age, during one month.
Backcountry: non-roaded wilderness area.
Backlog: a Ministry of Forests term applied to forest land areas where silviculture treatments such as planting and site preparation are overdue. Planting is considered backlog if more than 5 years have elapsed since a site was cleared (by harvesting or fire) in the B.C. Interior and more than three years on the Coast.
Basic silviculture: the harvesting methods and silvicultural operations, including seed collecting, site preparation, artificial and natural regeneration, brushing, spacing, stand tending and other operations, for establishing a free-growing crop of trees of a commercially valuable species and are required in a regulation, pre-harvest silviculture prescription or silviculture plan.
Biodiversity (biological diversity): the diversity of plants, animals and other living organisms in all their forms and levels of organization, including genes, species, ecosystems and the evolutionary and functional processes that link them.
Biogeoclimatic ecosystem classification (BEC): a hierarchical classification system with three levels of integration — regional, local and chronological — and combining climatic, vegetation and site factors.
Biogeoclimatic zone: a large geographic area with a broadly homogeneous macroclimate. Each zone is named after one or more of the dominant climax species of the ecosystems in the zone and a geographic or climatic modifier.
Biomass: the total weight of organic matter in a population or an ecosystem.
Biota: living organisms; the flora and fauna of a region.
Boreal: referring to that portion of the northern hemisphere directly south of the arctic tundra and north of the subtropics, including most of Canada, Europe and Northern Asia.
Botanical forest products: non-timber based products gathered from forest and range land. There are seven recognized categories: wild edible mushrooms, floral greenery, medicinal products, fruits and berries, herbs and vegetables, landscaping products and craft products.
British Columbia Forest Service (BCFS): see Ministry of Forests.
Brushing: a silviculture activity using chemical, manual, grazing or mechanical means to control competing forest vegetation and reduce competition for space, light, moisture and nutrients with crop trees or seedlings.
Bryoid: referring to bryoflora, the division of non-flowering plants comprised of mosses, liverworts and hornworts.
Bryophyte: moss-like plants (mosses, liverworts and hornworts).
Camping unit: a camping unit is an area within a recreation site where a group (or party) can camp. One recreation site generally has several camping units.
Canadian Council of Forest Ministers (CCFM): a committee created to stimulate the development of policies and programs to strengthen the forestry sector including the forest resource and its utilization.
Cirque: a steep-walled basin on a mountain shaped like half a bowl.
Clearwood: high value wood that is laid down after pruning or when the bole is clear of living or dead branches(i.e., wood without knots).
Clearcutting: a silvicultural system that generally removes an entire stand or crop of trees in a single harvest, creating a fully exposed area with a distinct microclimate. The previous stand is replaced with an even-aged crop of new trees, either through planting or natural regeneration.
Colluvium (colluvial soil): a transported, immature soil derived essentially from soil material eroded and deposited locally by sheet flow (e.g., down-washed or creek soils on lower slopes).
Commercial thinning: a partial cut in older stands where trees have reached merchantable size and value, carried out to provide an interim harvest while maintaining or restoring a high rate of growth on well-spaced final crop trees.
Commission on Resources and Environment (CORE): a permanent body which is independent of the various provincial ministries, mandated to deal with resource and environmental management issues.
Corporate resources inventory initiative (CRII): a multi-agency program funding inventory studies to collect new data and translate existing information to bring all resource inventories toward a common scale or level.
Crown land: land that is owned by the Crown, referred to as federal Crown land when it is owned by Canada and as provincial Crown land when owned by the Province.
District (forest district): an administrative unit within a forest region.
Ecology: the study of plants and animals in relation to their environment.
Ecosystem: a functional unit consisting of all living organisms in a given area and all the non-living physical and chemical factors of their environment, linked together through nutrient cycling and energy flow.
Edaphic: related to or caused by particular soil conditions, as of texture or drainage, rather than physiographic or climatic factors.
Endangered: a species facing imminent extirpation or extinction.
Endemic: native or confined naturally to a given region.
Environmentally sensitive area (ESA): area identified as having a high resource value so that the contribution of the area to timber harvest is severely limited. ESAs for forestry include potentially fragile, unstable soils that may deteriorate unacceptably after forest harvesting and areas of high value to non-timber resources such as fisheries, wildlife, water and recreation.
Epiphytic: refers to a plant (epiphyte) that grows above the ground, supported nonparasitically by another plant or object and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air and rain.
Evolutionary divergence: the acquisition or development of dissimilar characteristics or traits by related organisms, divergent from a common stock.
Extinct: a species that no longer exists.
Extirpated: a species no longer existing in the wild in British Columbia, but occurring elsewhere.
Falldown: the amount by which harvest levels must decline to meet long run sustainable harvest levels. It is the difference between the existing rate of harvest and the rate of harvest that can be sustained over the long term.
Fluvial: refers to materials transported and deposited by running water.
Forage: available browse and herbage that may provide food for grazing and browsing animals; the food or plant material eaten by livestock when on Crown range.
Forb: a broad-leaved herb. Any herbaceous plant that is not a grass or grass-like (e.g., geranium, buttercup, sunflower).
Forest Act: legislation governing activity on Crown forest lands in B.C.
Forest and Range Resource Analysis (FRRA): part of a management system to directly link the ministry with the provincial government. The Ministry of Forests Act requires that the analysis be produced every 10 years and contain descriptions of the inventory, condition and programs affecting the resource and forest management. As well, the report must contain an analysis of economic trends and opportunities with respect to supply and demand; and a summary of public policy issues affecting resource use, ownership, licensing and management.
Forest Licence: an agreement that allows for orderly timber harvest over a portion of a sustained yield management unit and the timely reforestation of harvested areas according to a strategic resource management plan prepared by the Ministry of Forests for each timber supply area. The licence has a term of 15 to 20 years, generally replaceable every five years and operating in areas that shift over time. Once an area is harvested and reforested, the licensee moves to another part of the timber supply area.
Forest Practices Code (FPC): legislation, standards and field guides that govern forest practices in British Columbia.
Forest Renewal Plan: a major long-term plan to renew B.C.’s forests by improving reforestation, silviculture, cleaning up environmental damage and enhancing community stability and employment within the forest sector.
Forest Resource Development Agreement (FRDA I & II): federal-provincial agreements to promote reforestation of NSR lands and basic and intensive silviculture.
Forest resource geographic information system (FRGIS): see Geographic information system.
Forest Resources Commission (FRC): a permanent independent body reporting to the minister of forests with a mandate to review and make recommendations on a wide variety of issues.
Forest Sector Strategy Committee: created in April of 1993 to consider strategies for revitalizing B.C.’s forests for the benefit of all. It includes representatives of industry, labor, First Nations, environmentalists, academics, communities and government.
Free-growing: an established seedling of an acceptable commercial species that is free from growth-inhibiting brush, weed and excessive tree competition; or young trees that are as high or higher than competing brush, with one metre of free growing space around their tops.
General range types: forest cover information summarized into meaningful groups for range management and inventory purposes.
Genetic diversity: variation among and within species that is attributable to differences in hereditary material.
Genus (plural, genera): a category of classification for living organisms; the first word of a scientific name.
Geographic information system (GIS): a computer system designed to allow users to collect, manage and analyze large volumes of spatially referenced information and associated attribute data.
Glacial drift: rock debris that has been transported by glaciers and deposited, either directly from the ice or from the melt-water.
Grazing fee: the price charged for food or forage used by livestock or tenure holders on Crown range in any year. Units of measure are the animal unit month (AUM) or the metric tonne.
Grazing tenures: range tenures administered by the Ministry of Forests, Range Branch including grazing permits, grazing licences, hay cutting permits, hay cutting licences and grazing leases. The purpose of grazing tenures is to legitimize the use of Crown range resources by farmers and ranchers.
Gross domestic product (GDP): the value of production of goods and services in the economy resulting from the factors of production, in particular from capital, whether of Canadians or of non-residents.
Ground rent: a fixed fee for forage; $0.20/AUM.
Height class: an interval into which the range of tree or stand heights is divided for classification and use. Also, the trees or stands falling into such an interval.
Igneous rocks: rocks produced under conditions involving intense heat (i.e., of volcanic or molten magma origin).
Immature timber: stands of timber where the age of the leading species in a stand is less than the specified cutting age. Cutting ages are established to meet forest management objectives. Usually stands with lodgepole pine and whitebark pine or a deciduous species as the leading species are considered as immature timber when the stand age is less than 81 years. Otherwise, all stands having conifers other than lodgepole pine and whitebark pine as the leading species are immature when the stand age is less than 121 years.
Incremental silviculture (intensive silviculture): silvicultural treatments carried out to maintain or increase the yield and value of forest stands. These treatments include site rehabilitation, conifer release, spacing, pruning and fertilization.
Integrated resource management (IRM): a process which identifies and considers all resource values, along with social, economic and environmental needs, with the goal of resource stewardship guided by the principle of sustainable use.
Integrated Wildlife Intensive Forestry Research (IWIFR): the program to develop and carry out an integrated and coordinated forestry-wildlife research program that provided information for the effective integration of intensive forest and wildlife management on Vancouver Island.
Inventory (forest): a survey of a forest area to determine such data as area, condition, timber, volume and species, for specific purposes such as planning, purchase, evaluation, management or harvesting.
Juvenile spacing: a thinning operation in which non-merchantable trees are felled; usually the thinned stems are left on the ground in the stand. Also known as non-commercial thinning or pre-commercial thinning.
Karst landforms: the topographic feature created by extensive chemical weathering of limestones, gypsum and other rocks by dissolution; geomorphologically characterized by a blocky appearance, tall rock pillars, scarps and sinkholes and underlain by caves, caverns and underground drainage (streams, etc.).
Lacustrine deposit: material deposited in lake water and later exposed either by lowering of the water level or elevation of the land.
Land and resource management planning (LRMP): a strategic, multi-agency, integrated resource plan at the subregional level. It is based on the principles of enhanced public involvement, consensus-based decision-making and resource sustainability.
Land Use Coordination Office (LUCO): the body created to develop and coordinate a corporate government position on provincial land use policy, regional and subregional land use planning and implementation of the Protected Areas Strategy.
Land use charter: presented by CORE as a way to set new land use strategies in the context of a sustainable society; provides general purpose and direction for policies and actions; and provides guidance to the regional and community-based planning and management processes.
Leading species: the primary tree species in a forest stand based on whole stem volume, on stem count or on basal area.
Local resource use plan (LRUP): a strategic plan for a portion of a timber supply area or tree farm licence that provides management guidelines for integrating resource use in the area.
Logging: the felling and extraction of timber, particularly as logs; forest harvesting activities including felling, yarding, hauling and road building.
Major licensees: those holding major licences such as timber sale licences, tree farm licences, timber licences, forest licences and timber sale harvesting licences.
Map notation: a Ministry of Forests administrative map label or “flag” that is placed on ministry maps and records to indicate ministry interest in an area within provincial forests (e.g., interest in managing an area primarily for its recreation values).
Mass wasting: movement of soil and surface materials by gravity.
Mature timber: stands of timber where the age of the leading species in a stand is greater than the specified cutting age. In even-aged management, those trees or stands that are sufficiently developed to be harvestable and which are at or near rotation age (includes overmature trees and stands if an overmature class has not been recognized).
Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOELP): provincial government ministry responsible for the protection, management and enhancement of British Columbia’s environment, while sustaining the quality of life.
Ministry of Forests (MOF): provincial government ministry responsible for the management and protection of the province’s forest and range resources for the best balance of economic, social and environmental benefits to British Columbians.
Ministry of Forests Act: legislation that governs the Ministry of Forests; enacted in 1979.
Monoculture: in general, even-aged, single species forest crops.
Muskeg: a complex mosaic of freshwater wetlands (fens, bogs, pools, streams) and scrubby forest.
Not forested (non-forest areas): area such as rock, alpine meadow, grasslands, wetlands, transportation routes, urban and industrial areas, with no tree species.
Not-satisfactorily-restocked (NSR): productive forest land that has been denuded and has not been regenerated to the specified or desired free-growing standards for the site.
Old Growth Strategy Project: a joint project by the ministries of Forests and Environment, Lands and Parks to develop a strategy and framework for managing old-growth forests in British Columbia. The strategy identifies the forest values inherent in old growth and the manner in which old growth can be conserved, through reservation of representative areas and through forest management practices on intensively managed lands.
Old growth: a forest that contains live and dead trees of various sizes, species, composition and age-class structure. Old-growth forests, as part of a slowly changing but dynamic ecosystem, include climax forests, but not subclimax or mid-seral forests. The age and structure of old growth varies significantly by forest type and from one biogeoclimatic zone to another.
Outwash (outwash fan): the mass of detritus deposited by fast-flowing, heavily-loaded water whose velocity is suddenly checked (e.g., at the mouth of gorges).
Persistences: populations of some species that survived the last ice age.
Physiography: science of physical geography.
Pre-Harvest Silviculture Prescription (PHSP): a site-specific management plan, since 1987 a legal prerequisite to logging on Crown land. PHSPs specify planned forest activities, the methods to be used and the proposed constraints necessary to protect the site and its resource values.
Prescribed burning: the knowledgeable application of fire to a specific area to meet management and silvicultural objectives.
Protected Areas Strategy (PAS): a process to coordinate all of British Columbia’s protected areas programs and objectives. It ensures that conservation, cultural heritage and recreation objectives are met within protected areas, including parks, wilderness areas, ecological reserves and wildlife management areas.
Protected areas: areas such as federal parks, provincial parks, wilderness areas, ecological reserves and recreation areas that have protected designations according to federal and provincial statutes.
Pruning: the removal, close to or flush with the stem, of side branches, living or dead and multiple leaders from trees to improve wood quality.
Public sustained yield unit (PSYU): a management unit that has been replaced by timber supply areas.
Pulpwood Agreement: an agreement that provides the holder of a wood residue processing facility, without competition, a supply of wood fibre from pulpwood stands if sufficient quantities of wood residues or byproducts of conventional timber processing are not available to the holder. An agreement covers a large area in one or more timber supply areas for a 25-year term which may be replaceable every 10 years. Harvesting authority is provided through a timber sale licence where the licensee is responsible for all operational planning, development, basic silviculture and forest protection.
Range Act: legislation governing the orderly transfer of range rights for ranching operations.
Rangeland: land used for grazing by domestic livestock and wildlife including grasslands and forest lands with an understorey or periodic cover of herbaceous or shrubby vegetation.
Recreation activity-day (RAD): all or part of a calendar day spent participating in a given recreation activity. RADs are specific to each activity. It is possible to participate in more than one activity per calendar day. See also Recreation user-day.
Recreation opportunity spectrum (ROS): a range of outdoor settings based on remoteness, area size and evidence of humans, which provides for a variety of recreation activities and experiences. The settings are classified on a continuum and are described as: rural, roaded resource, semi-primitive motorized, semi-primitive non-motorized and primitive.
Recreation user-day (RUD): all or part of a calendar day spent participating in any form of outdoor recreation. See also Recreation activity-day.
Regeneration (reforestation): the renewal of a tree crop, whether by natural or artificial means.
Region (forest region): established by regulation for administrative purposes, the province is divided into six forest regions: Vancouver, Prince Rupert, Kamloops, Prince George, Nelson and Cariboo.
Regional district: a partnership of municipalities and electoral areas within its boundaries. These local governments work together through the regional district to provide and coordinate services in both urban and rural areas.
Resource Inventory Committee (RIC): the committee consists of representatives from various ministries and agencies for the federal and provincial governments and First Nations peoples. The objectives are to develop a common set of standards and procedures for the provincial resources inventories, as recommended by the Forest Resources Commission.
Riparian zones: land adjacent to the normal high water line in a stream, river or lake extending to the portion of land that is influenced by the presence of the ponded or channelled water.
Saaniche: The complex of vegetation — grassland, savannah, vernal meadows and seepage areas, and rock outcrop communities — typical of the fire-dominated landscapes of the Coastal Douglas-Fir biogeoclimatic zone.
Seed orchard: a plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated to reduce pollination from an outside source and is intensively managed to improve the genotype and to produce frequent abundant and easily harvestable seed crops.
Seral: stages in a sequence of biotic communities (the sere) that successively occupy and replace each other in a praticular environment over time.
Silvicultural systems: a process that applies silviculture practices, including the tending, harvesting and replacing of a stand, to produce a crop of timber and other forest products. The system is named by the cutting method with which regeneration is established. The four classical systems are seed tree, shelterwood, selection and clearcut.
Silviculture: the art and science of controlling and manipulating the establishment, growth, composition, health and quality of forests and woodlands to meet the diverse needs and values of society on a sustained basis.
Site index: a measure of the relative productivity of a site, based on height of the dominant trees of a stand at an arbitrary age.
Site preparation: the preparation of a site by manual, mechanical or chemical means to create favorable conditions to promote the establishment of the regeneration crop.
Site association: (in the biogeoclimatic ecosystem classification) all land areas capable of producing vegetation belonging to the same plant association at climax.
Slash: the wood residue left after harvesting operations, stand tending, breakage, mortality or other natural phenomenon.
Small Business Forest Enterprise Program (SBFEP): This program permits the Ministry of Forests to sell Crown timber competitively to individuals and corporations who are registered in the SBFEP. Approximately 10 % of the province’s timber allocation is directed towards this program.
Socioeconomic: of, relating to or involving a combination of social and economic factors.
Stumpage payable account: account to which stumpage fees are paid.
Succession: the sequence of communities that progressively occupy an area over time; or, the process of change by which these communities replace each other.
Sustainability: the concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs.
Sustained yield: the yield that a forest can produce continuously at a given intensity of management without impairment of the productivity of the land. The intention is to balance timber growth and harvesting on a sustainable basis. A method of forest management that calls for an approximate balance between net growth and amount harvested.
Talus: a collection of fallen, disintegrated rocks and soil which has formed a slope at the foot of a steeper declivity.
Taxon (plural, taxa): a group of organisms recognized as a formal unit at any level of a hierarchic classification.
Tenure: the holding, particularly as to manner or term (i.e., period of time), of a property. Land tenure may be broadly categorized into private lands, federal lands and provincial Crown lands. The Forest Act defines many forestry tenures by which the cutting of timber and other user rights to provincial Crown land are assigned.
Threatened: a species likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed.
Till: unstratified glacial drift deposited directly by the ice and consisting of clay, sand, gravel and boulders intermingled in any proportion.
Timber harvesting: see Logging.
Timber Sale Licence: an agreement entered into under Part 3, Division (3) of the Forest Act. A timber sale licence usually defines a specific volume of timber to be harvested from a specific area. In special circumstances an annual allowable cut (AAC) is specified.
Timber Supply Review: a process examining the short- and long-term effects of current forest management practices on the availability of timber for harvesting in timber supply areas.
Timber Supply Area (TSA): the revised and consolidated former Public Sustained Yield Units within which the forest companies manage the timber resource according to strategic resource management plans prepared by the Ministry of Forests. Land is designated as a TSA under Part 3, Division (4) of the Forest Act.
Tree Farm Licence (TFL): a licence entered into under Part 3, Division (2) or (5). The TFL is a stewardship agreement over a sustained yield management unit. This includes the right to harvest a specified volume of timber annually and the obligation to carry out all phases of forest management on behalf of the Ministry of Forests. The licence has a term of 25 years and is replaceable every 10 years.
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED): the conference was held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The outcome was an action plan for the 1990s and into the 21st century, elaborating strategies and integrated program measures to halt and reverse the effects of environmental degradation and to promote environmentally sound and sustainable development in all countries.
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Projection: a special form of the transverse mercator in which the spheroid is divided into 60 zones, each six degrees of longitude in width.
Use, Recreation and Enjoyment of the Public (UREP): a category of recreation reserve on provincial Crown land.
Vernal: occurring in the springtime.
Visual landscape inventory: the identification, classification and recording of the location and quality of visual resources and values.
Vulnerable: a species of plant or animal of special concern because of characteristics that make it particularly sensitive to human activities or natural events.
Watershed: total region draining into a given waterway, lake or reservoir.
Weathering: the action of natural atmospheric conditions on any material exposed to them. It includes both physical disintegration and chemical decomposition caused by the elements.
Wilderness: an area of land greater than 1000 hectares that predominantly retains its natural character, and on which human impact is transitory, minor and in the long run substantially unnoticeable.
Wildfire: an unplanned or unwanted natural or human-caused fire or a prescribed fire that threatens to escape its bounds.
Woodlot licence: an agreement entered into under Part 3 Division (7) of the Forest Act. Similar to a tree farm licence, except that its scale of operation is not more than 400 hectares of Crown land plus any size of private land. The licence is for 15 years, replaceable every five years.