Forest Investment Account (FIA) - Forest Science Program
FIA Project Y103055

    SCHIRP: ecology and management of ericaceous shrub-dominated ecosystems in coastal BC
 
Project lead: Western Forest Products Inc.
Contributing Authors: Basiliko, Nathan; Khan, Amer; Prescott, Cindy E.; Roy, Réal; Grayston, Susan J.; Berbee, Mary L.; Negrave, Roderick W.; Titus, Brian D.; Beese, W.J. (Bill); Van Niejenhuis, Annette
Subject: Forest Investment Account (FIA), British Columbia
Series: Forest Investment Account (FIA) - Forest Science Program
Description:
SCHIRP was established in the 1980s to study poor conifer growth on sites dominated by ericaceous shrubs and to develop tools to improve conifer growth. The well-designed long-term trials allow investigation of current questions of biodiversity, ecosystem function, and carbon sequestration.
SCHIRP trials were installed on CH (cedar-hemlock) and HA (hemlock-amabilis fir) sites on northern Vancouver Island (Lewis 1982). Both are zonal to wet, nutrient-poor sites in the CWHvm1 (Green and Klinka 1994), but CH sites are less productive than HA sites. CH and HA ecosystems were thought to be successional stages: a lack of windthrow disturbance causing HA forests to develop into CH forests with a resulting decline in nutrient availability (Lewis 1982). Tests of this theory showed little effect of soil mixing on nutrient availability or tree growth. Competition and allelopathic effects of salal were suspected to contribute to poor conifer growth on CH sites but salal removal has been less effective than fertilization at improving conifer growth. The theory that slow decay and nutrient immobilization contributes to low nutrient availability has also been refuted.
While testing and disproving each of these theories, researchers made findings which indicate that CH sites are wetter than HA sites. This may be the primary cause of the low nutrient supply. These include greater frequency of gleyed horizons and hydromors in CH forests (deMontigny 1992), lower fauna abundance and biomass and larger population of copepods (Battigelli et al 1994), higher water content in CH forest floors, fast growth of shore pine (usually found in coastal bogs) on CH sites relative to other conifers (Bothwell et al 2001), and higher frequency of cedar (hence CH sites) near swamps and bogs.
The theory that high soil moisture causes low nutrient supply on CH cutovers is being investigated using a combination of field measurements, lab incubations, a field trial and ecosystem modeling. Soil and vegetation characteristics of CH and HA forests and cutovers have been measured to assess if they are consistent with the hypothesis of excess moisture on CH sites, especially following harvest. Lab incubation of soil under a range of moisture conditions is currently assessing the effects on microbial activity and nutrient availability. A field drainage trial is examined to determine if the characteristics associated with higher moisture on CH cutovers can be ameliorated by operational drainage. Finally, a hydrology stand-level simulation model, ForWaDy, examines seasonal patterns of soil moisture and differences in hydrology between CH and HA forests and cutovers, and the forest ecosystem model FORECAST will assess the long-term effects of different moisture conditions on nutrient supply and productivity.
The controlled, replicated Demonstration Trial plots offer an opportunity to evaluate the effects of fertilization on function and structure of microbial communities and on carbon sequestration. Plots logged in 1980 were fertilized in 1987 and 1997 with nitrogen (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg/ha) and phosphorus (0 and 100 kg/ha) and P with micronutrients for a total of 12 treatments.
Fertilization changed the ectomycorrhizal community species composition but not diversity (Wright 2006). We sequenced ~1000 DNA fragments of 99 fungal species from control plots and from plots fertilized with 300 kg/ha N with or without 100 kg/ha P. We recorded the ectomycorrhizal fungi species that were associated with each of four sample trees from each plot and observed that more litter and humus accumulated in the N + P plots than in the control or N plots.
We are testing the theory that N or N + P fertilization increased accumulation and carbon sequestration in humus and soil organic matter, resulting in long-term carbon storage. We compare soil C, microbial communities including ectomycorrhizal communities and their enzyme activities related to cycling of C and N in fertilized and unfertilized SCHIRP plots. We hypothesize that N-fertilized or N+P-fertilized plots are associated with less complete litter decay and larger accumulation of humus and soil organic matter compared to control plots, and that the effect will be more pronounced in the forest floor than at depth in soil. Humus and soil will be sampled in fertilized and control plots, and carbon stocks in the forest floor, soil, and root biomass will be determined and scaled up to a per ha basis. We will assess the composition of soil microbial communities in treated and control plots using established PFLA profiling methods for fungi and bacteria (Grayston et al 2004, 2006). Enzyme profiling will characterize functional diversity of soil microbial communities in terms of decomposition and nutrient cycling processes. This study will inform development of carbon indicators for certification schemes, and add to understanding of ecosystem function.
Contributing to an understanding of the effects of forestry practices on non-target species, the mycorrhizae of mature CH and HA forests will be compared with those of the ~25-year-old trees of the Demonstration Trials. We are testing the theory that one or more of the fertilization regimes increases the similarity of young mycorrhizal communities to the mycorrhizal community of mature forests.
We will analyze the fungi present in Demonstration Trial plots that differ with regard to levels of chitin-degrading enzymes. We will determine if there is a relationship between fungal species composition and soil enzymatic functions.
We will maintain our long-term silvicultural field trials according to our treatment schedule. The Vaccinium trials have received broadcast fertilizer applications of N and P as per the SCHIRP Field Guide, of 250 kg/ha and 100 kg/ha respectively. They were measured at time of fertilization to maintain baseline data for these treatment effect measures.
We will collect tree height and diameter measures from the SCHIRP installation. These 128 plots of 64 trees include 4 replicates of overlapping factorial designs. The first factorial experiment is 2 site types by two species by three densities by two fertilizer regimes. The second factorial experiment is 2 site types by 2 species by two site preparation regimes by 2 fertilizer regimes (at the highest density of the three densities in the first factorial design. We will initiate carbon sequestration studies in this trial, comparing the impact of treatment regimes on carbon cycling and storage.
Team members and associated graduate students will publish findings to date and include the findings in course content in University programs. Two manuscripts will be submitted in 09-10, together with ~50 DNA sequences published to GenBank, presentation to the Canadian Soil Science Society, publication of a PhD and an MSc thesis, and a field tour for forest practitioners and stakeholders, including local First Nations.
Related projects:  FSP_Y081055FSP_Y092055

    Deliverables:

Journal article: CJFR 39(6): 1220-1235 (0.3Mb)
Executive Summary (24Kb)

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Updated August 19, 2010 

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