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Senescence, stand break-up, and succession: Some adjustment to predicted yield may be required to account for yield losses at very old ages in stands that are breaking up, like this old lodgepole pine stand where the overstorey pines are losing vigour and dying out, and spruces and balsams are growing into the canopy. TIPSY assumes that live trees have live, single stem tops, and does not have the capacity to simulate stand break-up and succession.


Last Updated: August 27, 2001
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