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Animal damage: Some adjustment to predicted yield may be required to account for growth reductions, log defects, and mortality due to animal damage, like a) the damage on this young lodgepole pine tree and b) the elk damage to this Douglas-fir (below). TIPSY assumes that trees in the stand grow with only low levels of animal damage.

Elk damage to Douglas-fir

Last Updated: November 7, 2001
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