An Introduction and Key to the
Freshwater Calanoid Copepods (Crustacea)
of British Columbia

Table of contents

LIST OF FIGURES

 
Pages

Figure 1.

Adult Cyclopoida (a.-c.), Harpacticoida (d.-e.) and Calanoida (f-h.) showing distinguishing features. (a.- b.) Acanthocyclops vernalis (Fischer) (after Smith and Femando 1978). (a.) dorsal view of male (b.) dorsal view of female (c.) Lateral view of female [species not given] (after Harding and Smith 1974). (d.) Canthocamptus staphylinoides, dorsal view of female (after Smith and Fernando 1978). [Note: The male body form in harpacticoids is similar to the female, but with both right and left 1st antennae geniculate] (e.) C. staphylinus, lateral view of female (modified from Gurney 1932). (f.- h.) Diaptomus nudus Marsh (Copp Lake, B.C., drawn with reference to Shih and Maclellan 1977). (f.) dorsal view of male; (9.) dorsal view of female; (h.) lateral view of female

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Figure 2.

(a.) Adult male and (b.) adult female Diaptomus nudus Marsh, dorsal view, showing differences in male and female 1st antennae and urosome (Copp L., B.C., drawn with reference to Shih and Maclellan 1977)

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Figure 3.

Naupliar and copepodite stages of Diaptomus spp. (a.) N1 - N6, naupliar stages of D. kenai M.S. Wilson, ventrai view (after Green and Northcote 1982). (b.) N5, nauplius stage 5 of D. gracilis Sars, lateral view (after Gurney 1931). (c.- d.) C1 - C5, copepodite stages of Diaptomus sp. (modified from Shih and Maclellan 1977 and Einsele 1989). (c.) lateralview (d.) dorsalview

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Figure 4.

Development of legs in calanoid copepodites, stages 1 - 5 (C1 - C5). Copepodite Stage 1 (C1) (a.) 2nd pair of legs, anterior view (b.) leg bud (develops into 3rd leg of C2) (c.) lateral view with 2 pairs of legs and showing position of C1 leg bud. Copepodite Stage 2 (C2) (d.) leg bud (develops into 4th leg of C3) (e.) with 3 pairs of legs and showing position of C2 leg bud. Copepodite Stage 3 (C3) (f) leg bud (develops into 5th leg of C4)(9.) lateral view with 4 pairs of legs and showing position of C3 leg bud. Copepodite Stage 4 (C4) (h.) 5th leg, female, posterior view (develops into 5th leg of C5 female) (i.) 5th leg, male, posterior view (develops into 5th leg of C5 male) 6.) lateral view with 5 pairs of legs and showing position of either male or female 5th leg. Copepodite Stage 5 (C5) (k.) 5th leg, male, posterior view (develops into 5th leg of male C6) (I.) 5th leg, female, posterior view (develops into 5th leg of female C6) (m.) lateral view with 5 pairs of legs and showing position of either male or female 5th leg. [Figures a, b, d, f, h, i, k and 1, copepodite leg buds and legs of Diaptomus siciloides Lilljeborg (after Comita and Tommerdahl 1960). Figures c, e, 9, j and m, lateral views of copepodites (C1 - C5),(modified from Shih and Maclellan 1977 and Einsele 1989)]

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Figure 5.

Adult (C6) 5th legs with parts identified (a.) Male 5th leg, posterior view (after Wilson 1959)(b.) Female 5th leg, posterior view (after Shih and Maclellan 1977) (c.- d.) D. nudus Marsh, (Copp Lake, B.C., drawn with reference to Shih and Maclellan 1977) (c.) male, lateral view (d.) femaie, lateral view

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Figure 6.

Female calanoid with body parts identified, and diagram of mouthparts. (a.) Diaptomus nudus Marsh, lateral view (Copp L., B.C.) Mouthparts, 2nd antenna (A2), mandibular palp (MP), 1st maxilla (M1), 2rd maxilla (M2), and maxilliped (MXP); (modified from Vanderploeg and Paffenhoffer 1985, Lowndes 1935, Sars 1903) (b.) Ventral view, modified from llig(1975)

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Figure 7.

Male 1st antennae, Diaptomus nudus Marsh (after Shih and Maclellan 1977). (a.) Left antenna, segments 1 -25 (b.) Right antenna, spines on segments 10,11 and 13 (modified from Shih and Maclellan 1977 to show spines only) (c.) Right antenna, segments 1-25 [Note: Scale for a. and c. only]

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Figure 8.

(a.) Seasonal population dynamics of Diaptomus pallidus Herrick in Deer Lake, Burnaby, B.C. Percentage of animais as nawplii (N) and copepodite stages (C1-C6), D to. H = sequential cohorts of adults (after Chapman et al. 1985) (b.) Seasonal changes in adult metasome length of D. pallidus (after Chapman et al. 1985)

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Figure 9.

Population changes in the developmental stages of Diaptomus ashlandi Marsh in Lake Washington, Washington State. C1-C5 = copepodites 1-5, and C6 adults (modified from Comita and Anderson 1959)

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Figure 10.

Life cycle of Diaptomus sanguineus S.A. Forbes, in Bullhead Pond, Rhode island. (a.) Two generations of adults (G1-G2) in one year (b.) Numbers of diapausing eggs in the mud, numbers of subitaneous eggs [S-eggs] carried by females, and numbers of diapausing eggs [D-eggs] carried by females (modifed from Hairston Jr., 1987)

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Figure 11.

Cohort analysis of Diaptomus sanguineus S.A. Forbes, in Bullhead Pond, Rhode island, showing two discrete generations of nauplii (N1-N6), copepodites (C1-C5), and adults (G1 = generation 1; G2 = generation 2) over a one year period. N* = nauplli which have developed from diapausing eggs and which develop into G1. G1* = females which produce subitaneous eggs which develop into G2. Switch* = females switch from producing subitaneous eggs to producing diapausing eggs which marks the end of G1 (after Hairston and Olds 1984)

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Figure 12.

A feeding Diaptomus sp. drawn from high-speed film photographs showing changes in antennal position (from Strickler 1977)

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Figure 13.

A high velocity escape response of Diaptomus franciscanus Lilljeborg, following successive positions (displacement) of the copepod with time (after Lehman 1977). _ -average velocity between frames _ - successive positions of D. franciscanus

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Figure 14.

Tracing of swimming paths showing sinking [s] and gliding [G] (after Wong and Sprules 1986). (a.) Senecella calanoides Juday (b.) Epischura lacustris S.A. Forbes

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Figure 15.

Mouthparts of Diaptomus kenai M.S. Wilson (drawn under a light microscope, after Chapman 1982) with diagram of cephalosome and mouthparts (after Vanderploog and Paffenhofer 1985). (a.) = A2 = 2nd antenna (b.) = MP = mandible and mandibular palp (c.) = M1 = 15t maxilla (d.) = M2 = 2nd maxilla (e.) = MX = maxilliped

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Figure 16.

Acanthodiaptomus denticornis (Wierzejski). (a.) Male, dorsal view (b.) Female, dorsal view (c.) Female, lateral view (a.- c.) BickleL., B.C., after Einsele 1989 (d.) Male, right 1st antenna, segments 23-25 with outwardly produced process at distal end of segment 25 (e.- f ) Detail of male, 5th leg, posterior view (after Wilson 1959) (e.) left (f ) right

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Figure 17.

Epischura nevadensis Lilljeborg. (a.) Male, dorsal view (b.) Male, lateral view (c.) Female, dorsal view (d.) Female, lateral view (a.- d.) body; Shuswap L., B.C.; antennal segments; Cheslatta L., B.C

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Figure 18.

Heterocope septentrionalis Juday and Muttkowski. (a.) Male, dorsal view (b.) Female, dorsal view (c.) Male, lateral view (d.) Female, lateral view (a.- d.) body; Fraser L., B.C.; antennal segments; Chief L., B.C.

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Figure 19.

Epischura nevadensis Lilljeborg, male 5th leg, posterior view (after Wilson 1959) [no scale given]

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Figure 20.

Heterocope septentrionalis Juday and Muttkowski, male 5th leg, posterior view (after Wilson 1959) [no scale given]

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Figure 21.

Eurytemora affinis (Poppe). (a.) Male, dorsal view (with reference to Gardner and Szabo 1982) (b.) Male, lateral view (after Katona 1971 and Gurney 1931) (c.) Female, dorsal view (after Gurney 1931) (d) Female, lateral view (after Katona 1971) (b.- d.) Nitinat L., B.C

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Figure 22.

Senecella calanoides Juday (from Juday 1923). (a.) Male, dorsal view (b.) Male, lateral view (c.) Female, dorsal view (d.) Female, lateral view

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Figure 23.

Eurytemora affinis (Poppe) male, 5th leg, posterior view. (a.) afterWilson 1959 (b.) after Gurney 1931

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Figure 24.

Senecella calanoides Juday male 5th leg, posterior view. (a.) after Wilson 1959 (b.) after Juday 1923

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Figure 25.

Diaptomus forbesi Light. (a.) Male, 5th leg (after Wilson 1959) (b.) Male, right it antenna, segments 23-25 (after Light 1938)

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Figure 26.

Diaptomus leptopus S.A. Forbes. (a.) Male, dorsal view (b.) Female, dorsal view (c.) Male, 5th leg, anterior view (a.-c.) after Pinei-Alloul and Lamoureux 1988b (d.) Male, 5th leg, posterior view (e.) Male, right 1st antenna, segments 23-25 (d.- e.) after Wilson 1959

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