Archaeology – the
scientific study of the physical evidence of past human cultures.
Armouring – placing non-erodible material (e.g., riprap) over
material that may be subject to erosion.
Ballast – rock, gravel, or other stabilizing material placed
on top of subgrade or overland ground during road building.
Carbonate bedrock – rock consisting mainly of the carbonate
minerals calcite and dolomite.
Catchment – the
surface area drained by various sized watercourses.
Cave – a natural cavity in the earth that connects with the
surface, contains a zone of total darkness, and is large enough to
admit a human. For the purposes of cave management, this term should
also include any natural extensions, such as crevices, sinkholes,
pits, or any other openings, that contribute to the functioning of
the cave system.
Cave decorations – secondary mineral deposits formed in caves;
Caves with thin
ceilings – caves where the depth of the overlying
bedrock is less than three times the width of the cave passage (Derek
Ford, pers. comm., December 1999) (See
Conduit – a subsurface stream course completely filled with
water, and always under hydrostatic pressure.
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Cross-ditches – ditches excavated across a road at an angle,
and at sufficient depth, with armouring as appropriate, to divert
both road surface water and ditch water across the road.
Dolomite – a mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate.
Rock is chiefly composed of the mineral dolomite. Also called dolostone.
Dry valley – a valley that lacks a surface water channel.
Endhaul – to move excavated material from one section of a
road to another, or to a disposal site, during road construction
stream – a stream or portion of a stream that flows
only in direct response to precipitation, drying up shortly after
Epikarst – the upper surface of karst, consisting of a network
of intersecting fissures and cavities that collect and transport
surface water and nutrients underground; epikarst depth can range
from a few centimetres to tens of metres.
Geotextile material – a synthetic material placed under road
fill, bridges, or reinforced slopes with the primary purpose of limiting
fine aggregate transfer.
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Grubbing – removal of stumps, roots, embedded logs, organics,
and unsuitable soils before, or concurrently with, subgrade road
Grike – a deep, narrow, vertical or steeply inclined rectangular
slot in carbonate bedrock, developed by solution along a joint or
Gypsum – the mineral, hydrated calcium sulfate.
Halite – the mineral form of sodium chloride (NaCl), or rock
Karren – channels or furrows separated by ridges resulting
from solution on bedrock surfaces; the term is also used broadly
to describe a variety of superficial solution forms on the surface
Karst resources – refers to all components of a karst system,
including the physical, biological, and aesthetic aspects of a karst
Karst spring – underground stream that emerges at the surface;
also known as a rising stream.
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Limestone – a sedimentary rock comprised primarily of calcite.
Marble – limestone that has been recrystallized and hardened
by heat and pressure.
Overburden – material of any nature (soil, sand, silt, clay),
consolidated or unconsolidated, that overlies deposits such as bedrock,
ores, or coal.
Overlanding – placing road construction fill over unstripped
organic soil, stumps or other vegetative materials for the purpose
of distributing vertical loads over soft ground, whether or not the
fill is supported by corduroy or geotextiles.
Paleontology – science that studies fossil remains, both plant
and animal, from past geological ages.
Physiographic – pertaining to the origin and evolution of landforms.
Road deactivation – measures taken to stabilize roads and logging
trails during periods of inactivity, including the control of drainage/runoff,
the removal of sidecast where necessary, and the re-establishment
of vegetation where permanent deactivation is required.
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Road rehabilitation – involves the removal of a road and restoration
of the original slope and natural drainage patterns to prevent erosion
and re-establish site productivity.
Settling basin – small ponds or basins where water flows are
contained to enable suspended sediment to settle before the flow
is discharged into a stream.
Shaft – a deep vertical or nearly vertical solution hole, generally
cylindrical in shape, with no passages or chambers leading from it.
Sidecast – moving excavated material to the downslope side
during road and landing construction.
Significant surface karst feature – details for determining
the significance of surface karst features are provided in Appendix
C of Karst
Inventory Standards and Vulnerability Assessment Procedures (RISC
Significant cave – information on classifying caves for
their significance is provided in RISC (2003).
Silt/Sediment trap – a device for trapping or otherwise preventing
silt or sediment from entering a stream (e.g., silt fence, filter
Sinkhole – a topographically closed karst depression, wider
at the rim than it is deep; commonly of a circular or elliptical
shape with a flat or funnel-shaped bottom.
Solutional cavities – cavities formed primarily by the solution
action of water on carbonate bedrock.
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Sorbents – materials capable of adsorption (attracting and
holding substances upon its surface [e.g., charcoal]) and absorption
(sucking in and holding a substance within a porous material [e.g.,
sponges]) used to clean up spills.
Speleothems – secondary mineral deposits formed in caves, such
as stalactites or stalagmites. Also known as cave formations or cave
Subgrade construction – removal of obstacles and materials
necessary for the construction of a road.
Subsidence – movement in which surface materials are displaced
vertically downward, with little or no horizontal component.
Swallet – location where a stream sinks underground, often
associated with a stream flowing into a cave entrance; also swallow
Troglobite – a creature that lives permanently underground,
beyond the daylight zone of caves, and cannot survive outside the
Troglophile – a facultative cave-dwelling animal that may complete
its life cycle in a cave, but can also survive in above ground habitats.
Trogloxene – an animal that enters caves for various reasons,
but does not live there permanently (e.g., bats).
Waterbars – shallow ditches excavated across a road at an angle
to prevent excess surface flow and subsequent erosion of road surface
Windthrow – uprooting of trees by the wind.
For a larger glossary of forestry terms please see
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